You'll need three particular writing skills for the Literature Review.
So first, a short review.
-Just the “gist” or key idea of a source, shortened from the original.
-The summary must be cited correctly, giving credit to the original author for the idea.
-Your own commentary on the source should clearly be separate, so the reader isn’t confused about which information comes from where.
Language play, the arguments suggest, will help the development of pronunciation ability through its focus on the properties of sounds and sound contrasts, such as rhyming.
--David Crystal (1998)
Playing with language and sound will help children develop pronunciation skills (Crystal 1998).
Using summary in the Literature Review:
Used to give a brief overview of source (such as in a brief introduction to the source).
Used to give a key idea of the source (within a synthesis point).
Paraphrasing is useful to make sure you understand the author’s ideas.
It is done by substituting the author’s own words with your words, while keeping the author’s sentence structure and organization.
While a summary is much briefer than the original material, a paraphrase might not be significantly shorter.
When used in a paper, this must be credited with proper citation.
Language play, the arguments suggest, will help the development of pronunciation ability through its focus on the properties of sounds and sound contrasts, such as rhyming. Playing with word endings and decoding the syntax of riddles will help the acquisition of grammar. Readiness to play with words and names, to exchange puns and to engage in nonsense talk, promotes links with semantic development. The kinds of dialogue interaction illustrated above are likely to have consequences for the development of conversational skills. And language play, by its nature, also contributes greatly to what in recent years has been called metalinguistic awareness, which is turning out to be of critical importance to the development of language skills in general and literacy skills in particular.
--Language Play, David Crystal (1998)
In Language Play, David Crystal (1998) argues that playing with language—creating rhymes, figuring out riddles, making puns, playing with names, using inverted words, and so on—helps children figure out a great deal, from the basics of pronunciation and grammar to how to carry on a conversation. This kind of play allows children to understand the overall concept of how language works, a concept that is key to learning to use—and read—language effectively.
A shorter example of paraphrasing:
Language play, the arguments suggest, will help the development of pronunciation ability through its focus on the properties of sounds and sound contrasts, such as rhyming. David Crystal, 1998
Playing with language, Crystal (1998) says, aids in the advancement of pronunciation, since it concentrates on sounds such as rhymes.
Paraphrasing in the Literature Review
-Use any time you want to put an idea into your own words.
-This allows you to control the information and how it is presented to the reader.
-Your lit review should not be a collection of quotations copied and pasted into the document, so you will likely be using this skill very often.
-Also, considering your audience will be more broad than a professional lit review, you’ll need to tone down the jargon, which can be done through paraphrasing.
The twenties were the years when drinking was against the law, and the law was a bad joke because everyone knew of a local bar where liquor could be had. They were the years when organized crime ruled the cities, and the police seemed powerless to do anything against it. Classical music was forgotten while jazz spread throughout the land, and men like Bix Beiderbecke, Louis Armstrong, and Count Basie became the heroes of the young. The flapper was born in the twenties, and with her bobbed hair and short skirts, she symbolized, perhaps more than anyone or anything else, America's break with the past.
First, summarize the entire passage.
Next, paraphrase the first two sentences.
Kathleen Yancey, English 102 Supplemental Guide (1989) p. 25.
Three reasons to quote directly:
Authority: If material is more convincing coming directly from the source
Precision: If something crucial could be lost by rephrasing material
Vividness: If something fresh and interesting about the style or word choice could be lost by rephrasing it
Quoting in the Literature Review
Take the three reasons to quote (authority, precision and vividness) as strong recommendations.
Resist the urge to plug in large amounts of quoted material. Have a good reason why you are quoting something.
Avoid block quotes (of 40+ words in APA style) unless you believe they are absolutely crucial.
The Turn It In score (which will flag direct quotations and patchwriting) is a factor in the scoring of this paper.
Credit must always be given to the author.
Sources must always be introduced. On first mention, an expert’s full name and occupation/area of expertise should be shared. After that, use the last name (not the first or first-last).
Use the past tense (found) or present perfect tense (have found) to refer to the author’s findings (required by APA, but also makes logical sense considering the study was completed). Jones (2017) found that…
Whether summarizing, paraphrasing or quoting:
The Mechanics of Quotations
Use double quotes (“like this”) around quoted material.
Use single quotes inside double quotes to indicate that the quoted material itself contains a quotation (“Nevertheless, the findings were ‘troubling’ and ‘reprehensible’ according to the Environmental Protection Agency”).
It’s not necessary to quote a whole paragraph of original material--use summarizing and paraphrasing skills instead.
You get to decide when to begin the quote—at the beginning of a sentence, in the middle, or near the end—to make it work best within the flow of your own writing. Just make sure not to change the meaning by altering the context.
The Mechanics of Quotations, cont.
Use ellipses to indicate that you have omitted material (another way to shorten the quotation).
Use brackets to indicate that you have altered the original material (perhaps to make singular or plural, or to use a different verb/verb tense).
“Metalinguistic awareness…[has] critical importance to the development of language skills in general and literacy skills in particular” (Crystal 1998).
Note: The quotation never stands alone in a sentence. This error is called a "floating quote". It must always be introduced, analyzed, etc. when used. By the same token, quotations should never begin paragraphs.
Use "signal verbs" to accurately convey what the writer is doing in the text.
Signal Verbs, cont.
Verbs like said and wrote and observed have a more neutral connotation.
Verbs like concluded and charged and confirmed signal that there is something final about the source’s information.
Verbs like admitted and claimed might show that the writer is expressing criticism.
Verbs like criticized and objected and argued need a larger context, showing which idea the source material is responding to in an argument.
Make sure the signal verb’s meaning is clear and appropriate for the reader.
You have many to choose from, but signal verbs cannot be used interchangeably.
APA follows the author-date method, meaning the author’s name and the date of publication are present in the text (body) of the paper, and a full reference is found on the reference page.
When paraphrasing or summarizing, use author-date. Page number is optional. Jones (1998) found that students had trouble using APA formatting.
When quoting directly, use author-date-page number. According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).
Note that the quotation appears around directly quoted words only, not reference information like a page number listed in parentheses. Note that the period or other punctuation (such as a semi-colon) appears AFTER the parentheses and not the quotation itself.
1. Choose a passage of source material from Lab Girl – one or two sentences, but not enough for a block quote (not more than 40 words). The passage needs to meet one of these requirements: authority, precision, vividness.
2. Introduce the author (first and last name, position/background, date of publication).
3. State the general idea of the source material.
4. Provide signal words that lead into the quotation.
5. Quote correctly. Use ellipses, brackets or abbreviated quotations as necessary.
6. Then provide two to three sentences of analysis showing how you, the author quoting this material, interpret this information and how it connects to your other ideas.