METHODS AND APPROACHES OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
Grammar Translation Method ( the 1840 to 1940)
Method of foreign second language teaching which makes use of translation and grammar study as the main teaching and learning activities.
Teacher Role: Teacher is the strict authority.
-Classes are teacher-centered.
Student Role:Students are the passive receivers of the new information.
Direct Method (The ages 1890 – 1930)
Is method focuses on directly thinking, doing discussion and conversation in second language, "directly think in English".
Teacher Role: The teacher usually directs the interactions but he/she is not as dominant. Sometimes acts like a partner of the students.
Student Role: are active participants. Sometimes pair works take place. Even the teacher takes roles in activities.
Oral Approach/ Situational language teaching (1930- 1960)
The ability to respond quickly and accurately in speech situations with an automatic control of basic structures and sentence patterns .Students Role: Learner uses the knowledge in actual practice a personal skill.
- Learner produces accurate pronunciation and uses grammar .
- Teacher Role: serves as a model -setting up situations in which the need for target structure is created -modelling the new structure for students to repeat.
( The age 1930 – 1960)
The structural approach means the arrangement of words in such a way as to form a suitable pattern of sentence. To teach language through this approach we have to understand the pattern and structure of the language.
The audio-lingual method (1950s and 1960s)
The teaching of the oral skills with accurate pronunciation, grammar and the ability to respond quickly and accurately is the main objective of audiolingual method.
Teacher Role: S/he directs and controls the language behaviour of the students, is a good model of the target language, especially for pronunciation and other oral skills.
Student Role: Interactions T-ST, ST- ST. Interactions are mostly initiated by the teacher.
Silent Way (1963)
This method is based on the view that the teachers should be silent in the classroom as much as possible but the teacher must encourage the students to speak and use the language.
Teacher role: While the teacher uses mainly gestures and facial expressions to address the learners, his/her main task is the teaching of the language by letting the students test out grammatical forms,
Student Role: The learners are expected to participate in class actively. They should be willing to make mistakes, to test out the basic language.
Communicative language teaching (CLT), David Nunan (1960)
The communicative approach, is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study in order to promote language skills in all types of situations.
Learner role: The emphasis in Communicative Language Teaching on the processes of communication, rather than mastery of language.
Teacher role: the first role is to facilitate the communication process between all participants in the classroom, and between these participants and the various activities and texts.