600 IU/day (19-70 yr)
800 IU/day (>70yr)
Chief Functions: increases calcium + phosporus absorbtion in GI tract and withdraws calcium from bones, stimulating retention by kidneys
a hormone that regulates the metablism of calcium and phosphorus.
Significant Sources: sunlight, fortified: milk, juices, and cereals.
Deficiency Symptoms: rickets, mishapen bones, deformities of ribs, osteoporosis, progressive weakess
of US population is deficient
Toxicity Symptoms: elevated blood calcium, calcification of soft tissues
Issues with Absorbtion: latitude, air pollution, age, color of skin, sunscreen, gut health
DRI: 1,300 mg/day (9-13 yr)
1,000 mg/day (19-30 yr)
a mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored.
Chief Functions: required for vascular contraction and vasodilation, bone density, muscle function, nerve transmission, intracellular signaling, hormonal secretion
Deficiency Symptoms:muscle cramps, stiffness, poor mobility,osteoporosis
Significant Sources: yogurt, cheese, tofu, fortified juices, milk
Toxicity Symptoms: weakened bones, kidney stones, compromised heart and brain function
Issues with Absorbtion: vitamin D intake, caffeine intake, age, alcohol intake, amount/type of food consumed
“Nutrient Recommendations: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI).” NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ods.od.nih.gov/Health_Information/Dietary_Reference_Intakes.aspx
Chapter 11.” Understanding Nutrition, by Eleanor Noss. Whitney et al., Cengage Learning, 2017, pp. 351–356.