Salma J , Nora & Dalal
Christianity + Wakan Tanka (The Great Spirit; most powerful god).
1) animals , plants and humans all came from nature
2)everyone and everything has a spirit -"wakan"
3) physical and spiritual world are both one and the same
The great spirt (waka tanka )
The words Wakan Tanka translates to “all that is holly and mysterious”
Wakan Tanka is said to have assistance from a spirit called “wakanpi”
The spirits had control over all aspects of life and so the Sioux and other indigenous tribes that worshiped these beings felt obligated to make them happy to keep the land prosperous.
known to go through a solitary vision quest to discover what the spirits require of them.
like dream interpretation and drum-induced trances
The vision quest is a ritual specific only to boys on the verge of puberty
divine gifted people which have the ability to connect themselves to their guardian spirit to bring about what’s favorable to the tribe
Communication with these spirits was essential through shamanian practices
This ritual included leaving the boy in a specific place in isolation without food or water, then the boy returns and reports his vision to the elders of the tribe.which he then uses to benefit his tribe. As a result, the boy would have a higher social status within the tribe.
It represented the cycle of death and rebirth in which the boy will be connected with his guardian spirit after the rebirth,
lasted around 3-4 days usually.
purification process, where there are heated stones surrounding the boy which get cold water spilled on them to let the steam purify the boy
The sweat lodge
given to the tribes by a spirit called White Buffalo Woman
lighting the pipe, smokers would communicate with spirits and see visions.
represented the responsibility and loyalty of each member of the tribe to the other and their identity as a tribe
When people smoked the pipe, they prayed for and with everything.
Sacred Calf Pipe
sacred pipe (used to see visions)
- sacred pipes
The Sun dance
to renew the relationship between the land and all creatures, which included the spirits of course. A response to a vision
4 days of preparation would take place where they would fast and rearrange their tipis in a circular fashion with a tree in the middle strapped and secured to the ground.
The ceremony usually starts and ends with the sunset.
This self made torture could last hours depending on how much skin was ripped in the process, and the festival could last days.
The tribe would pierce a part of their chest and tie the piercing to the tree pole, then they would lean away while they dance to rip the skin free in which the pain is a tribute to the spirits
The Ghost dance
to restore the land and buffalo. The Sioux expanded this belief by including symbols on their clothing for this ceremony that provided protection during battle.
This dance united many of the tribes which is speculated to be the real reason why this was banned.
During the 1890’s, when many tribes experienced the loss of land and buffalo
reason behind it