In this timeline, you will see how complicated life was for African Americans, and their struggles to get to where they are today.
Yet there are still many rivers to cross.
In 1940, 10,000 African Americans traveled to northern cities with the promise of a better life. Economy and stability didn’t mean equality. 99% of all black people worked in the foundry, which was the dirtiest and most unsafe place to work in.
During Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, automobile factories started producing bombs instead of cars. Because of the war, blacks and whites had to work together. This increased racial hatred instead of uniting people in the society. African Americans weren’t letting whites treat them like garbage anymore. Therefore, they defended themselves, causing lots of interracial conflicts. Detroit was the arsenal of democracy and of racial conflict.
PEARL HARBOR, THE BEGINNING OF AN INSIDE WAR
The black Press mounted the double V campaign in 1942. was a slogan and drive to promote the fight for democracy in oversea campaigns and at the home front in the United States for African Americans during World War II.Victory against two fronts; against Hitler and racism at home.
DOUBLE V, CAMPAIGN FOR DEMOCRACY
African Americans went to war (1 sept. 1939 – 2 sept. 1945) hoping their service would give them the equality they deserved once and for all. But, they never received the full rights of the American citizenship. They started planning to force America to makegood of their promise on equality.
WORLD WAR II,
AN OPPORTUNITY TO PROVE EQUALITY
THE RIOTS BEGAN
In 1943 the Race War erupted. Some of the worst violence occurred at this war. Riots and chaos erupted quickly. By the end of a two day riot, 24 African Americans were dead. More than half were killed by the Detroit police. So, African Americans refused to return to the status quo.
In February 1946, army sergeant Isaac Woodard boarded a bus and asked to use the restroom. The driver said no and insulted him. So, Isaac responded in the same manner. When the bus arrived to its next stop, two police officers were waiting for Isaac there. the officers beat him up really bad, leaving Woodard blind for the rest of his life.
DEFENSE PUNISHED WITH ABUSE
FROM BLACK CULTURE TO POPULAR CULTURE
The status quo was being shaken by Radio broadcast. In 1949, radio station WDIA became part of the social movement. It was forced to broaden its audience because they needed the listeners so the station wouldn't go broke. So an all black show was created, in which they introduced DJs. Americans started listening to African Americans’ music. So Black culture started becoming popular culture. African Americans started being recognized at a cultural level, an example would be Dorothy Dandridge was the first African American to be nominated to an Academy Award.
One of the first movements began in a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama. December 1st, 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give her seat to a white man. This battle triggered the revolution and she became its icon. She was selected as the perfect woman (out of three) to challenge segregation on public buses. During the trial “when Rosa Parks sat down black people stood up” , she democratized the movement. African Americans walked to works instead of buses. “90% of Negros in buses refuse to transport in one until something is done” stated Martin Luther King. King’s pacifist rebellion and ideals were inspired in Ghandi’s, these methods would work
A WELL SIT WOMAN
"WHEN THE TIME IS RIGHT OTHERS WILL REPEAT"
Paul Robeson condemned American government. In 1951 at the United Nations he presented a petition entitled “We Charge Genocide, Crime of Government Against Negro People”. He believed the only solution for economic deprivation was a communist revolution and it could solve racial discrimination in America. Majority of black leaders disagreed, they felt that they still had to present as patriotic Americans. He responded to this leaders with the phrase, “When the time was right others would repeat”. Public shaming of the U.S. was a strategy that worked to start the next social movements that were to come.
In 1958 Brown vs Board education admitted “Separate but Equal Education” was unconstitutional, but there was no change.
ACTIONS OVER WORDS
THE RISE OF STUDENTS
By the end of April in 1960, over five thousand students had strategic sit-ins throughout the South. Ella Baker a 56 year old veteran helped founding the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Ella broaden the social movement and momentums throughout her transmission of personal experiences to students.
In Detroit, June of 1963 Martin Luther King was promoting peaceful rebellions. He had such strong yet peaceful ideals that not even Americans hated him. He was defending both white and black people.
THE PEACEFUL MEDIATOR
In 1961 the desegregation of University of Georgia was accomplished by Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes. Students tried to desegregate cities in South (schools).
In New Orleans, November 14, 1964, A 6 year old girl named Ruby was escorted to the local All White Elementary School. She was one of the six children chosen to desegregate several all white schools. Over 500 kids were taken out of school because of this little girl.
500 WHITE CHILDREN OR A SINGLE BLACK CHILD
In 1965 there was a peaceful march for voting rights, became Bloody Sunday, negros were denied from their right to vote. Police beat them up brutally. Hundreds of clergies came to Salma for unity. The south became a national embarrassment.
The Black Panther Party was founded in 1966, in Oakland, California. This party promoted protection for African Americans. Kathleen Cleaver rises and calls of african power.
THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY
MARCH AGAINST FEAR
In June 1966, James Meredith, a law student, went on a solo march across the south to draw attention to voting registration. This was called “March against Fear” two days after his march started, when he crossed the Mississippi line was shot. This lead the movement of elders demanding freedom.
In 1966 Kwanzaa was created by Maulana Karenga. This was holiday to celebrate and embrace African roots, to reinforce the black community.
CELEBRATING AFRICAN AMERICAN CULTURE
Martin Luther King was murdered on April 4th, 1968. This caused a commotion worldwide and chaos in the cities. A new form of black resistance was created.
In September 1969, Ingressed 96 black students in Yale. Six of these graduated with honors. The students that were already admitted started asking for the university to open up admission policies.
CULTURAL MOVEMENT GOES ON
“Black is beautiful” started becoming a trend among African Americans. In the year 1969 black characters were starring in t.v. shows. There was a boom in soltrain music, dancing, and rebellation on national tv shows.
Was a term popularized by the media shortly after a press conference on June 18, 1971, by President Richard Nixon. The day after the publication of a special message from the president to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control, he declared drug abuse "public enemy number one". There was a movement created called “Just Say No”, in order to try preventing this. This was the perfect excuse for Americans to blame it all on African Americans. Leading to the arrest of lots of innocent people. They planted traps and prisons eventually exploded.
WAR ON DRUGS
A BIG LEAP TO CHANGE
First National Black Political Assembly was held in 1972. In which most of the delegates (the most vocal ones), agreed that African-American communities faced a social and economic crisis, and that nothing short of fundamental changes in the political and economic system could bring an end to this crisis.
He founded PUSH, or People United to Save Humanity (later changed to People United to Serve Humanity), an organization that advocated self–reliance for African Americans and sought to establish racial parity in the business and financial community.He also urged African Americans to be more politically active.
JESSE JACKSON CONTRIBUTIONS
EXPRESSING YOUTH RAGE
Among the 70s, young people tried to express their rage somehow. Hip hop was one of the ways they founded to acknowledge their struggles.
In March 1991, officers with the California Highway Patrol attempted to pull an African–American man named Rodney King over for speeding on a Los Angeles freeway. He was beaten by police and this caused outrage in the African American community.
Rage over the verdict sparked the four days of the L.A. riots, beginning in the mostly black South Central neighborhood. By the time the riots subsided, some 55 people were dead, more than 2,300 injured, and more than 1,000 buildings had been burned. King end up winning.
RACIAL PROFILING CASES KEPT GOING
In October 1995, hundreds of thousands of black men gathered in Washington, D.C. for the Million Man March, one of the largest demonstrations of its kind in the capital’s history. The march was intended to bring about a kind of spiritual renewal among black men, and to instill them with a sense of solidarity and of personal responsibility to improve their own condition.
After he was elected as president on November 4th, 2008, he marked a really important moment on history. Becoming the first black president in history. Not only giving equality to African Americans but empowering them. This proved that equality was possible and all of the years of effort in culture, revolts, etc-- everything was worth it.
TURNING POINT IN HISTORY
During August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans. In which 1,836 people died and hundreds of thousands lost their homes. Lots of Americans and middle class African Americans could move out of the city, while the poor African Americans were left behind.
MILLION MAN MARCH
Nowadays, there are still movements such as "Black Lives Matter" because even though we they have come this far, there is still lots of racism and sagregation because of this. There is still the abuse, and certain stereotypes that are not precisely good. It's a matter of time for this to start fading.