Oliver Brown refused to send his daughter 20 blocks away to a black only school when there was a perfectly good whites-only school 5 blocks away that she could go to. He took the case to the supreme court where they ruled the schools were separate but not equal and to segregate schools was harmful to the psychological health of the black children.
Brown Vs Board of Education 1954 (9)
Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man in the front of the bus and so she was arrested. Her arrest sparked the movement of the bus boycott.
9 African American students exercised their right to go to an all-white school with the help of the national guard when the school and citizens would not let them enter.
The bus boycott was a movement by civil rights supporters to make the bus system lose so much money that they were forced to desegregate the busses in 1956.
Rosa Parks 1955 (7)
Little Rock 9 1957 (6)
The Bus Boycott 1955-1956 (9)
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference was formed to be less likely to be persecuted because of its religious affiliation compared to the NAACP. They were able to organize his 1957 march on Washington but not much else.
The sit-ins in Greensboro NC forced restaurants to close because they would not serve African Americans but were able to kick them out. The sit-ins signified a movement that was now taking action.
Alabama Governor George C Wallace stood at the door of University of Alabama, to try and block two black students from registering at the school.
Alabama governor George C Wallace 1963 (5)
Greensboro Sit-ins in the 1960s (7)
When African Americans tried to register for voting, registration was canceled, white people threw objects and snakes at those attempting to register, and police shot many innocent African Americans.
Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Loving couple that were arrested for interracial marriage in virginia. The ruling believed that the law was in violation of the 14th amendment
President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968, the Fair Housing Act, which provided equal housing opportunity for all, regardless of race, religion, etc.
Fair Housing act 1968 (10)
Loving Vs Virginia (10)
Selma Alabama 1965 (8)
Joseph Lee Jones, a black man, stated that a real estate company in St. Louis, refused to sell him a house in a neighborhood, on the basis that he is a black man. The supreme court sided with Jones, and stated that section 1982 of the federal civil rights act prohibiting the discrimination of blacks in the sale or rental of property.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965, was signed into law by president Lyndon B Johnson, and its purpose was to overcome legal barriers at the local and state levels, that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote, which was supposed to be guaranteed under the 15th amendment.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended segregation in public places and banned discrimination in employment, on the basis of race, religion, origin, or sex. It was first proposed by president John F Kennedy, and was signed into law by Lyndon B Johnson.
Civil Rights act 1964
Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Company 1968 (10)
Allan Bakke, a white man, applied for admission to the University of California Medical School at Davis. He was rejected both times, because the school reserved 16 places for qualified minority students, even though Bakke’s GPA and scores were better than that of any of the minority students admitted in the last 2 years. The court ruled that public universities can take race into account as the sole factor in admissions.
University of California Regents v. Bakke 1978 (10)
Batson v. Kentucky 1986 (9)
At the trial of James Kirkland Batson, a black man who was being charged with burglary and receipt of stolen goods, the prosecutor used his peremptory challenges to remove all the African American jurors from the jury pool. Batson challenged these removals, and stated that they violated his sixth and fourteenth amendment right. The court ruled that the state is not allowed to use its peremptory challenges to remove jurors based on their race.