"Differentiated instruction recognizes the value and worth that exists in each individual.
It allows students from all backgrounds and with diverse abilities to demonstrate what they know, understand, and are capable of doing."(Gentry, Sallie & Sanders, 2013, p.3)
Ideas of Universal Design Learning
Reaching all Students
One of the main principles of differentiated instruction is to maximize student growth and success.
Creating flexibility in learning goals and effective and ongoing assessment. The curriculum can be modified in its content, process, and form of assessment
Student & Teacher Collaboration
Differentiated instruction is most effective when their is communication between students and teachers and they are working towards a goal together
Goals of Differentiated Instruction
Learning is a process. It takes detailed planning and dedication in order for instructional strategies to be developed & implemented
Student Learning Concepts
"Differentiated instruction means shaking up what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn." (Tomlinson, 2017, p.7)
Differentiated instruction applies for ALL learners and every student can benefit
Incorporating multiple approaches to content, process, and product helps students grow by "establishing learning goals and attending to pacing and other supports necessary to advance the learning of class & individual" (Tomlinson, 2017, p.7)
Pre-assessment is a vital component to differentiated instruction.
Pre-assessment identifies students' needs and interests in accordance with the unit
Final assessment is reviewed through various formats to address each individual students success & achievements
Systematically reviewing with students during the unit tracks learning progress
"Assessment is no longer predominantly something that happens at the end of a unit to determine [success]."
(Tomlinson, 2017, p. 7)
Classrooms today are more diverse than ever. One challenge is accommodating the unique needs of each student and maximizing their education.
Figure 1.1: Percentage of Children with Disabilities Served in Various Educational Settings
(Gargiulo, & Metcalf, 2013, p.7)
Types of Differentiated Instruction
There are many ways to shake things up!
Content matches students comprehension
Students preference in how they learn
2. Learning Profile
Student has plenty of choices to individualize their learning
3. Student Interest
Types of Instructional Strategies
(Tomlinson, 2013, p.65)
Range of Materials
Differentiating with technology
Homework options & checking
Options for reading material
Student selected content
Modifying the Curriculum
Tips for Modifying General Education Curriculum for Multiple Learners and Needs
(Tomlinson, 2017, p.39
Teach students first, then content
Learners need to be reminded of the purpose often
1. Clear Lesson Objectives
Less lecturing > More student lead discussions
2. Design engaging lessons
• Written • Oral • Video • Act it out • Artistic • Summative Projects
3. Vary forms of Assessment
Using overhead projectors, tablets, and videos keep kids interested!
4. Incorporate Technology
Challenge kids to think through problems
5. Balance Creative & Critical thinking
ADAPTED FROM THE START OF UNIT
FUNCTIONAL LEARNING SPACE
EQUAL ACCESS TO LEARNING
UNIVERSAL DESIGN for LEARNING
"UDL allows teachers to adapt curriculum, customize delivery of instruction, and assess students in ways that permits them to demonstrate their mastery of the material" (Gargiulo, & Metcalf, 2013, p.9).
FOR ALL STUDENTS
Some students face a greater challenge in the classroom and must overcome learning barriers.
It's essential to incorporate accommodations into your lesson planning that offer ALL students, regardless of their disabilities, the opportunity to succeed.
You're not alone! Ask for help or ideas from other teachers when faced with a new challenge
Specific learning disabilities
mild cognitive delays
Moderate to profound mental disabilities such as Autism, Downs Syndrome, William’s Syndrome
Traumatic Brain Injury, Cerebral Palsy
Less common impairments.
Types of Learning Barriers
IEPS, learning goals, and overcoming challenges
Promoting Positive Social Development
Peer interactions -
Small group work, peer tutoring, interest groups
"In addition to the physical arrangement and instructional grouping, the bonding or social interconnectedness of the teacher(s) and students in the class is equally important in providing a healthy classroom climate." (Watson & Gable, 2013, p.32).
Monitoring behavior -
Use checklists, rewards and incentives, weekly goals
Classrooms need to remain functional, positive environments. A few ways to maintain that are to set up behavior goals and a reward system with students who misbehave. Basically, offer incentives for good behavior.
Example behavior chart
Incorporating differentiated instruction as a teacher can feel overwhelming, but take it step by step and use it as a tool!
Learning is a journey - not a destination
Work with other teachers, use the internet, collaborate with students and find out how they want to learn and what they want to learn!
Gargiulo, R. M., & Metcalf, D. J. (2013). Teaching in todays inclusive classrooms: A universal design for learning approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Gartin, B. C., Murdick, N. L., Imbeau, M., Perner, D. E., & Council for Exceptional Children, A. D. (2002). How To Use Differentiated Instruction with Students with Developmental Disabilities in the General Education Classroom. DDD Prism Series.
Gentry, R., Sallie, A. P., & Sanders, C. A. (2013). Differentiated Instructional Strategies to Accommodate Students with Varying Needs and Learning Styles. Online Submission, 18.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2017). How to differentiate instruction in academically diverse classrooms. Alexandria, Va: ASCD.
Watson, S. R., & Gable, R. (2013). Cognitive Development of Adolescents at Risk or with Learning and/or Emotional Problems: Implications for Teachers. Intervention In School And Clinic, 49(2), 108-112.