Identify typically-developing speech and language skills for K-2nd graders
Describe the various stages of English language learners’ English language development
Take away 3 strategies they can use in their classrooms to support the speech and language of all students
Typical Language Development
Handout: pgs 1-2
Turn & talk :
What are some things in the handout that are surprising?
Describe a child who does not meet multiple criteria.
Speech Sound Development
Handout: pg 4
Turn & talk:
Think about a child who you think has speech delays and a sound that they frequently mispronounce.
Is the sound considered developmentally appropriate?
Non-Typical Speech / Language Patterns
Repeating sounds or words (“b-b-book”), prolonging sounds (“mmmmy book”), and blocks (“m-my book”)
May be accompanied by blinking, tics, facial tremors, jerking of head, etc.
Voice quality should not be hoarse unless sick
Disinterested in communication
Poor eye contact
Lack of appropriate play skills
Difficulty socially engaging with other students
Echoing back what other say
English Language Learners
ELLs consistently show smaller vocabularies in their home language and slower rates of vocabulary growth over time compared to monolingual peers.
ELLs benefit significantly when exposed to rich elaboration of vocabulary words during book reading.
Children need opportunities to engage in back-and-forth conversations with linguistically competent adults to develop language skills.
It takes 6 months – 2 years for ELLs to acquire Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)– language needed for everyday, social interactions where context can be used to interpret (e.g. nonverbal language, reactions, etc.).
It takes AT LEAST 5 -7 years to develop Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)– cannot rely on context to use CALP (e.g. textbooks, a lecture, a novel).
Language DIFFERENCE or DISORDER?
Good L1 + the 5 stages of language acquisition
Might code-switch and transfer over L1 patterns to L2
Poor L1 + delay / difficulty with the 5 stages of language acquisition
Over-representation in special education:
American Indians / Alaska Natives
English language learners
Under-representation in special education:
Ways to Support Students with Speech / Language Needs and ELLs:
Turn & talk (handout) :
1. What are 1-2 main things you learned and would like to remember?
2. What are 2-3 strategies you'd like to start incorporating starting tomorrow?
3. Are there students you identified as possibly having a language difference? Language disorder?
4. On the paper/ index card, write any questions you have that I can address tomorrow.
American Speech Language Hearing Association (n.d.) Your child's communication development: Kindergarten through fifth grade. Retrieved from: https://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/communicationdevelopment/
DeLorenzo, J.P. & Green, A.I. (2014). Use of standardized scores in individual evaluations of culturally and linguistically diverse english language learners ages 3 through 21. Retrieved from:http://www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/publications/ells-disabilities-standardized-scores-dec-2014.htm
National Council of Teachers of English (2008). English language learners: A policy research brief. Retrieved from: http://www.ncte.org/library/NCTEFiles/Resources/PolicyResearch/ELLResearchBrief.pdf
Rueda, R. & Windmuller, M.P. (2006). English langauge learners, LD, and overrpreesetnation: A multiple-level analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39, 2.
Wasik, B. & Hindman, A. (2018). Why wait? The importance of wait time in developing young students’ language and vocabulary skills. The Reading Teacher, 72, 3.