Joel Spring, Historian “In Puritan colonies, the concern was whether or not the people would follow the laws of the state and the word of God and scriptures. So in teaching there was a certain level of fear in children…if they failed to obey authority they were damned.” (3:38-3:56)
The Purpose of schools:
To create a unifying idea of nationhood and citizenship within children....” School is also the place where we are taught important facts, not only about education, but about the meaning and practice of democracy itself.” (1:28 -1:35)
A Wave of reform from the 1950s to the 1970s to open America’s schools to everyone. It took Activists, Parents and Students to accomplish this. It started with Brown Vs, The Board of Education, Topeka Kansas.
Schools needed to be anchored in the whole child- the social, intellectual, emotional and physical development of a child. – John Dewey (Father of progressive education) (3:36 – 4:15)
The Common School
Immigrants to the USA in the 1840s were Catholic Irish
Minorities Fighting for Rights
National Civil Rights Act
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.-- The Declaration of Independence
"The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires."
- William Arthur Ward
Inequity in Education
“The school is the little world in which the child is trained for the larger world of life. Beginning there those relations of equality, which the constitution and the laws, promise to all. I conclude that there is but one kind of public school free to all, whether rich or poor, whether Catholic or Protestant, whether white or black, excluding none, comprehending all.” Charles Sumner, “Equality Before the Law: Unconstitutionality of Separate Colored Schools in Massachusetts”
4 million slaves free
No. of children working in the US by 1910
1837 – “Mann found a system based on inequity.
Schools varied widely from town to town, they were supported by local taxes, and by fees charged to parents. Wealthy students could stay in school longer, the poorest couldn’t afford to go to school at all.” (1:23-1:52)
Purpose of education is not only inclusion but liberation.
12.7 million students enrolled in public school in 1890
Average No. of days in school
Estimated Average White American Adults' IQ in 1920s
“We were held back, not because someone hated us but because the teachers accepted who we were on the basis of our family and heritage and kind of assumed that we would repeat the pattern of our parents.” – Julian Nava, Former student, Los Angeles, CA. (Former Ambassador to Mexico under Pres. Jimmy Carter)
The black teachers were more qualified than their white counterparts. This was because one: Most of the black teachers had their masters. Education was the chief source of employment for the black professionals. (8:22 -8:41)
National Board of Professional Teaching Standards is formed and Board Certification for Teachers required in response to National Commission on Excellence in Education report "A Nation at Risk".
SMART BOARDS (Interactive White Boards) are introduced.
The Improving America's Schools Act (IASA) includes reforms for Title I; increased funding for bilingual and immigrant education; and provisions for public charter schools, drop-out prevention, and educational technology.
“Education then, beyond all other devices of human origin, is the great equalizer of the conditions of men, the balance-wheel of the social machinery. “
NCLB & ESSA
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), renames and amends Public Law 94-142. In addition to changing terminology from handicap to disability, it mandates transition services and adds autism and traumatic brain injury to the eligibility list.
COLUMBINE SCHOOL SHOOTINGbegins a new phenomenon of school mass shootings.
"...It is incongruous that 99% of teachers were rated effective 10, while only 35.8 percent of our students are proficient in math and 31.4 percent in English language arts. How can so many of our teachers be succeeding when so many of our students are struggling?..."
- The State of New York's Failing Schools: 2015 Report
More states are attacking teacher tenure and school districts across the country are laying off teachers. Teachers in several states have been striking to gain better wages and benefits.
SOURCES "The History of American Education Parts 1-3 " (2010, May 01). Retrieved September 18, 2018 from https://youtu.be/3gXNZ0xZzaQe
"School Episode 3, 1950 - 1980" (2015, March 17). Retrieved September 18, 2018, from https://youtu.be/xXZQB1Q4yT0 http://www.eds-resources.com/educationhistorytimeline.html The State of New York's Failing Schools: 2015 Report