The Meiji Restoration, German Unification, and Mexican Revolution
Nationalism Annotated Timeline
Prussia was one of the most well developed and industrialized states of its time. It was the leading country in production of coal and iron, as well as building roads and railroads. In 1815, they were producing 5 times more coal and iron than their competition, and neighboring country, Austria. It had recently implemented procedures within its state in order to reform peasantry, such as lower taxes, less regulation in their mining industries and improved working conditions. In turn, Prussia was a much more unified country within its own borders; this was important to their unification with other states and made them a much stronger force to reckon with.
Otto Von Bismarck, who had recently been appointed Chancellor of Prussia, begins to attempt the unification of Prussia with other Germanic and protestant states. He reacts to and capitalizes on political and economic changes in other German states, which gains the trust of many who shared his same ideology and unifies them in many senses, although not yet physically. What this meant was that the countries surrounding Prussia, such as France and Austria, had begun to worry about their massive influence over other states.
The Charter Oath was introduced into the society of Japan, and the restoration of the country began taking place. The Charter Oath, also known as the Imperial Oath of Five Articles, was essentially a way for Western industrialization to make its way into the societies of Japan, based around the Western parliament/constitution. In other words, the introduction of this oath meant that western ideologies were able to make their way into the every day lives of the Japanese citizens, such as clothing and musical instruments. This specific event was unifying, however, as we will see, in the long run, it was divisive.
After the defeats of Austria and France, the Treaty of Frankfurt was put into place in order to establish a border between the-now-basically-unified Prussia and it's sorely beaten neighbors, France and Austria. This is very self-explanatory in that it is divisive overall, as it lead to the mostly permanent separation of these states-- however, as a whole, it did bring together many Germanic states.
The National Army is created, which is essentially a law in which all men require at least 3 years of serving in the Emperor's army, regardless of social standing, in order to be able to live at the time. This specifically meant that in the future, the entire structure of the army and other positions was changed vastly, such as the reduction of Samurai's positions of power, (this made them very mad.) and was overall very divisive for the communities that had taken root, as disputes arose regarding the required service for men.
While holding office, Porfirio Diaz claimed to follow the policy of “no re-election”, but once his term was over in 1880, he quickly took back previous statements of his campaign. In 1884, after large cities were overrun by crime and riots with the new president citizens were ready to take back Diaz as their president. In later years, he would amend and re-amend the constitution numerous times to allow himself to be re-elected indefinitely. He served a total of seven terms in office, and was ultimately a unifying factor because everyone hated him so much.
The Meiji Constitution was put into place from 1889- 1947, that was used to define Japan as a capable, modern nation that deserved the respect of the Western countries that had a history of writing Japan off. Legislature was changed, and an electoral cabinet was chosen; the Emperor was also granted control of the army/naval powers, and voting restrictions were loosened. Overall, the Meiji Constitution was much different than their previous parliament, and resulted in a much more Westernized outlook, such as difference in goernment, pop culture and much more aggressive war tactics.
The Mexican revolution began with many states wanting to rise against the government in northern Mexico. Soon after this, many Mexicans started to immigrate to El Paso, Texas and the US as a whole in order to escape from the violence of both riots from citizens and retaliation from the government. This resulted in push back from the US because of the onslaught of new arrivals. This was another divisive factor in the Mexican Revolution because it meant that those wanting to preserve their families and lives had to leave their homes and essentially run away-- though it did shine light on the way that Diaz was running Mexico into the ground.
Venustiano Carranza held very nationalistic views while campaigning for presidency in Mexico, and once elected, held office from 1917 to 1920. Carranza later drafted a new Mexican constitution which included many promises that would be beneficial to Mexico socially and economically. For example, the separation of church and state, the reform of education and the promise to restore the land to the native people. In the end, Carranza was a much more suitable president of Mexico that unified many people.