A brief timeline of civil rights landmark cases useful in AP Government.
A law banning polygamy was constitutional, and did not infringe upon individuals' First Amendment right to free exercise of religion
RENYOLDS V UNITED STATES
It upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation laws for public facilities if the segregated facilities were
equal in quality
PLESSY V FERGUSON
Freedom of speech can be restricted if it was a “clear and present danger.”
SCHENCK V UNITED STATES
First Amendment protection of free speech applied also to state governments.
GITLOW V NEW YORK
Prior restraints on publication violate freedom of the press.
NEAR V MINNESOTA
The Fourteenth Amendment's due process clause applies to freedom of assembly.
DE JONGE V OREGON
Compelling children in public schools to salute the U.S. flag was an unconstitutional violation of their freedom of speech and religion.
WEST VIRGINIA BOARD OF EDUCATION V BARNETTE
Using taxes to bus children to religious schools was constitutional because it did not go against seperation of church and state.
EVERSON V BOARD OF EDUCATION
American state laws establishing racial segregation in public schools are unconstitutional, even if the segregated schools are otherwise equal in quality.
BROWN V BOARD OF EDUCATION I
Schools must immediately implement the ruling and desegregate.
BROWN V BOARD OF EDUCATION II
Evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which prohibits “unreasonable searches and seizures,” is inadmissible in state courts.
MAPP V OHIO
Official recitation of prayers in public schools violated the First Amendment's Establishment Clause.
ENGEL V VITALE
Legally or officially mandated Bible reading or prayer in public schools is unconstitutional.
ABINGTON SCHOOL DISTRICT V SCHEMPP
Defendants in criminal cases who are unable to afford their own attorneys are entitled to one under the Sixth Amendment.
GIDEON V WAINWRIGHT
The actual malice standard that must be met for press reports about public officials to be considered libel.
NEW YORK TIMES V SULLIVAN
A state's ban on the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy.
GRISWOLD V CONNECTICUT
Detained criminal suspects, prior to police questioning, must be informed of their constitutional right to an attorney and against self-incrimination.
MIRANDA V ARIZONA
Established a broad interpretation of students' First Amendment rights, especially with right to protest.
TINKER V DE MOINES
Found that the passing of any state laws that establish a religious body is a direct violation of the United States Constitution
LEMON V KURTZMAN
Classified documents can be published because the First Amendment applied when it served the governed.
NEW YORK TIMES V UNITED STATES
The parents' fundamental right to freedom of religion was determined to outweigh the state's interest in educating its children.
WISCONSIN V YODER
Redefined its definition of obscenity to that which lacks "serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value"
MILLER V CALIFORNIA
A woman's right to choose an abortion was protected by privacy rights.
ROE V WADE
Upheld affirmative action, allowing race to be one of several factors in college admission policy.
REGENTS OF UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA V BAKKE
Burning of the U.S. flag was a constitutionally protected form of speech.
TEXAS V JOHNSON
The state could deny unemployment benefits to a person fired using peyote, even if it was for religious use.
EMPLOYMENT DIVISION V SMITH
Parts of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 were unconstitutional because they exceeded congressional power under the Commerce Clause.
UNITED STATES V MORRISON
Made same-sex sexual activity legal in every U.S. state and territory by striking down sodomy laws
LAWRENCE V TEXAS
The right of an individual to "keep and bear arms," as protected under the Second Amendment, is incorporated by the Due Process Clause.
MACDONALD V CHICAGO
Contraceptive mandate promulgated under Obamacare violated privately held, for-profit corporations' right to religious freedom
BURWELL V HOBBY LOBBY
The fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples.
OBERGEFELL V HODGES
College admissions can use race as a factor in good faith and is not used as the sole determinant (#BeckyWithTheBadGrades was never admitted).
FISHER V UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
The government generally needs a warrant in order to access cell site location information because cell phones are necessary for modern life.
CARPENTER V UNITED STATES