Consider the significance of the terms ‘malignant’ and ‘benign’ on patients
Compare the differences between malignant and benign tumours
Explain how patho-physiological and traumatic changes result in specific disorders and client signs and symptoms
Explore the significance and impact of relevant health and social care policies on the client's experience and the nurse's role
Malignant cells are harmful (virulent)
What the patient hears
Malignant = cancer = you will die
Impact on patient = ‘‘enormous’’ (NICE 2015)
Benign cells are non-harmful i.e.non-malignant
What the patient hears
Benign = you might have cancer
invades surrounding tissue
not well defined
Differences in cell growth and behaviour in benign and malignant tumours
does not metastisize
easier to remove
Proto oncogenes and anti oncogenes (tumour suppressor)
Hallmarks of malignant cells
Genome instability & mutation
Dark GG and Razak AR (2014)
Resisting cell death (apoptosis)
Sustaining prolific signalling
Evading growth suppressors
Enabling replicative immortality
Activating invasion and metastasis
Reprogramming energy metabolism
Evading immune destruction
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Clare C (2013) Cancer. In Muralitharan N and Peate I (Eds) Fundamentals of applied pathophysiology: an essential guide for nursing and healthcare students (2 nd edition). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 36-65.
Craig A and Barry S (2010) Cancer: basic science and clinical aspects. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Dark GG and Razak AR (2014) Oncology. In Walker BR, Colledge NR, Ralston SH and Penman ID (Eds) Davidson’s principles and practice of medicine (22 nd edition). Edinburgh: Churchill-Livingstone Mishelmovich N, Arbr A and Odelius A (2016) Breaking significant news: the experience of clinical nurse specialists in cancer and palliative care. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 21 (1) 153- 159.
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https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/NG12. Accessed 14/03/17.