Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
IDEA was first known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975
The EHA became IDEA in 1990.
This legislation addresses all students with disabilities.
Its purpose is to ensure all children with disabilities receive a free public education that is both appropriate and unique to there needs.
The goal is to prepare students with disabilities for future education, employment, and independent living.
It is vital for teachers to know about IDEA in order to ensure each child receives the education he/she deserves. As well as to recognize potential disabilities and take appropriate action.
School Requirements under IDEA
Services must be provided in least restrictive environment possible.
Input of child and parents must be taken into account.
Every child entitled to free and appropriate public education.
Students entitled to thorough evaluation in all areas related to suspected disability.
Students entitled to creation of Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
Parents have the right to challenge IEP and treatment methods.
Title XI and Sex Discrimination
When did it occur?
Title XI occurred as a part of the education amendments of 1972.
What population is address?
All students, as well as all state and local agencies which receive ED funds.
What are some requirements from schools?
Programs and activities must operate in a nondiscriminatory manner. Also there can be no retaliation against those individuals who file charges complaints, or who testify in cases of discrimination.
What about its purpose?
Title XI seeks to ensure that no person is excluded from, denied the benefits of, or subjected to discrimination under any education program that receives Federal financial assistance.
Why should teachers know about Title XI?
Every student has a right to a safe and inclusive educational setting. Being aware of title XI should ensure that every teacher works towards creating a safe environment to learn in.
Jacob Javits Gifted & Talented Students Education Act.
The Jacob Javits Act was passed in 1988.
It is the only federal program dedicated specifically to gifted and talented students. As such it is vital for educators to be made aware of this Act. Teachers should seek to refer students to gifted and talented programs to maximize each child's potential.
The purpose of the Jacob Javits Act is help schools meet the special educational needs of gifted and talented students. They work towards identifying and serving underrepresented groups such as those who are economically disadvantaged, limited-English proficient and disabled. The goal is to reduce the educational gap and encourage equal educational opportunities for all students.
Three Components to Javits Program
The National Center on the Gifted and Talented is designed to allow researchers, policymakers and practitioner a forum in which to conduct research.
Grants to expand gifted and talented programs serving underrepresented students.
Grants to enhance gifted and talented offerings statewide.
Title I: Improving the Academic Achievement Of The Disadvantaged
Title I went into effect in 1965 and addresses all students.
Its purpose is to ensure all children have an equal opportunity at obtaining a high quality education that aids them in achieving minimum proficiency on academic standards and assessments.
Title I seeks to achieve its purpose through the following:
Ensuring assessments and teacher training are in line with State standards, meeting the needs of low-achieving and underrepresented children, closing the achievement gap, holding schools and states accountable for improving academic achievement, distributing and targeting resources sufficiently, improving teaching and accountability, providing greater decision making authority, providing accelerated educational programs, promoting schoolwide reform, elevating the quality of instruction, coordinating services and providing parents opportunities to participate.
Teachers should know about Title I in order to aid in raising the educational standards so that disadvantaged students are given equal opportunities to succeed.
This act occurred in 1973 and 1974. It is aimed at students with disabilities. Protected students are those with a physical or metal disability that limits one or more major life activity, those who have a record of such an impairment or are regarded as having such.
The purpose of Section 504 is to eliminate discrimination on the basis of disability and to ensure such students have a means to an appropriate education.
Section 504 of the Rehibilitation Act of 1973 & 1974
Section 504 continued...
Schools are required to provide a free appropriate public education to qualified students regardless of the severity or nature of their disabilities. Students are entitled to special education, aids and services which meet their individual educational needs.
As educators it is incumbent upon us to be aware of each students individual needs and work to create an environment of inclusiveness and lessons aimed at the betterment of each student.
Lau v. Nichols
This case occured inn 1974 but has since been revisited numerous times, most recently being modified in 2008.
Lau v. Nichols address those students who speak little or no English in the public school systems.
The Master Plan requires bilingual-bicultural education to ELL students who speak, Chinese, Filipino, and Spanish.
The initial result was that schools would determine when and if bilingual instruction should be given. However, Lau v. SF Unified School district saw parties entering a consent decree in which a Master Plan was incorporated.
Why is Lau v. Nichols important for teachers to know?
As our world continues to shrink, and as immigration grows, increasingly the classroom environment is becoming more diverse. Teachers should embrace this diversity and seek to use it as a means of providing students with a fuller education. ELL students should not be penalized for a substandard grasp of English. Rather every opportunity should be given to them to learn in their native tongue while building mastery of English.