People in china made paper out of rags at this time which morphed into modern day paper making². In this time period India developed numbers 1-9 ¹.
300-500 B.C. "Abacus"
Pre-mechanical Age (3000 B.C -
When humans first began communicating they would try to use language but commonly used simple picture drawings known as petroglyphs which were usually carved in rock.¹
100 A.D "Paper Making"
Between this time period the Abacus was invented³. This was one of the very first information processors².
Around 600 B.C. "Papyrus"
The Greeks developed a way to make books to store information. They folded sheets of papyrus vertically into leaves and bound them together².
1450 The Information Explosion "Printing press"
Late 18th century
Mechanical Age (1450-1850)
Johann Guttenberg invented the movable metal-type printing process and sped up the process of composing pages from weeks to minutes. The printing press made written information much more accessible to the general public by reducing the time and cost that it took to reproduce written material⁴.
Blaise Pascal build one of the first mechanical computing machines called a Pascaline. This device used a series of wheels and cogs to add and subtract numbers⁴.
Electromechanical Age 1850-1940
The Voltaic Battery discovery of a reliable method of creating and storing electricity made it possible for a whole new method of communicating information⁴.
Early 1800's "Telegraph"
1835 "Morse Code"
1890 "Herman Hollerith and IBM"
The telegraph was the first major invention to use electricity for communication purposes. making it possible to transmit information over great distances with great speed⁴.
Morse Code was invented by Samuel Morse. He created a system that broke down letters into bits that could be formed into electrical impulses and transmitted over a wire⁴.
Herman Hollerith, who worked in the Census Office in Washington, D.C., manipulated a machine that could automatically sort census cards into a number of categories using electrical sensing devices to "read" the punched holes in each card resulting in being able to count the millions of census cards and categorize population into relevant groups. The company that he founded to manufacture and sell the machine eventually developed into the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM).⁴.
The Electronic Age 1940-Present
1946 "Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)"
John Mauchly, a physicist, and J. Prosper Eckert, an electrical engineer, at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, funded by the U.S. Army, developed the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) in 1946. It could add, subtract, multiply and divide in milliseconds and calculate the trajectory of an artillery round in about 20 seconds².
"First Gen Computers"
The first generation of computers used vacuum tubes as their main logic elements; punched cards to input and externally store data; and rotating magnetic drums for internal storage of data in programs written in machine language ⁴.
1989 "Microsoft Windows"
MS Windows, a word processing device debuts in 1989, however it was very bulky. It wasn't until; 1993 when the system took off².
2015 "Oracle 11g"
Founded by the Oracle Corporation, this a system contract writing tool that manages the entire procurement life cycle⁵.
¹ Bradley, W,. Elkner, J. (2017). Intro to ICT: History Of Information Technology.
Retrieved from http://openbookproject.net/courses/intro2ict/history/history.html
Struggling under his increasing debts, sells his 6000-volume library to Congress for $24k
² Butler, J. (1998) History Of Information Technology. Retrieved from
³ Mastermind Tutorials (2013) History of the Abacus. Retrieved from
⁴ Ahmed, Z. (2012). A History of Information Technology and Systems. Retrieved from
⁵ Oracle Data Sheet (2015) PeopleSoft Supplier Contract Management: Retrieved from https://www.oracle.com/assets/051309.pdf