Believed all material objects are composed of water
"Thales of Miletus was the first known Greek philosopher, scientist and mathematician. Some consider him to be the teacher of of Pythagoras, though it may be only that he advised Pythagoras to travel to Egypt and Chaldea." http://www.math.tamu.edu/~dallen/history/thales2/thales2.html
(624- 546 B.C.)
Was taught mathematics by Thales
founder of a school called The Semicircle
Most known as the author of the Pythgorean theorem ("the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides"(dictionary.com).
Pythagorean's also realized that this knowledge could be applied to other musical instruments.
believed in an immortal soul and reincarnation
'self-taught pioneer of wisdom'
Believed in everlasting word (logos) in which all things are in a sense, one.
analogous to fire
"first Western philosopher to go beyond physical theory in search of metaphysical foundations and moral applications."https://www.iep.utm.edu/heraclit/
Influenced by Hercalitus, Xenophanes and pythagoras
founder of Eleatic school of italy
believed in method of reasoned proof for assertions.
first known Greek philosopher https://www.ancient.eu/Parmenides/
(approx. 569-475 B.C.)
influenced Pericles, Archealus
Greek philosopher of nature remembered for his cosmology and for his discovery of the true cause of eclipses.britannica.com/biography/Anaxagoras
Part of pre-socratic philosophy
influenced by Parmenides
"subscribed to and defended the Monist beliefs of Parmenides.'
"member of the Eleatic School of ancient Greek philosophy".
from the Greek colony of Elea in southern Italy. philosophybasics.com/philosophers_zeno_elea.html
" best known for originating the cosmogonic theory of the four classical elements. 4 elements= fire, air, water, earth
founder of Pluralist school https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empedocles
Empedocles of Acgras
Zeno of Elea
School of greek philopsophy
"an ancient Greek philosopher who, at different points, allegedly lived in a wine barrel (some accounts describe it as a tub), urinated on guests at a banquet, defecated in the theater, lived on a diet of onions, and was one of the few people who openly mocked Alexander the Great and stayed alive." medium.com/@mustaphahitani/diogenes-of-sinope
founder of platonism
student of Socrates
"known for his Dialogues and for founding his Academy north of Athens, traditionally considered the first university in the western world."
Believed that philosophers are the only ones who seek true knowledge and are the only ones fit to govern the world. ancient.eu/plato/
influenced pythagoras, anaximander, anaximenes
"classical Greek philosopher who is credited with laying the fundamentals of modern Western philosophy"
Believed in God as a inner voice and held noconformist beliefs
"Dialectic central in pursuit to truth" academia.edu/1277680/Platos_Dialectical_Method
Socrates of Athens
Diogenes of Sinope
attended Peripatetic School
influenced by Parmenides, Socrates, Plato, Heraclitus, Democritus
"suggests that knowledge and belief belong to different types of inquiry: knowledge is the province of first philosophy (metaphysics) and second philosophy (natural science such as physics), whereas belief is the concern of dialectic. link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-6004-2_16
founder of school called Lyceum
found system of epicureanism
influenced by Democritus and Pyrrho
revered as a materialist and atomist
"author of an ethical philosophy of simple pleasure, friendship, and retirement." britannica.com/biography/Epicurus
epicureanism teaches that the "greatest good is to seek modest pleasures in order to attain a state of tranquillity, freedom from fear and ansence from bodily pain" philosophybasics.com/branch_epicureanism.html
Lived during Ancient philosophical times
founder of Stoicism school
was a member of eleatic school
"famous throughout antiquity for the rigorously logical and devastating arguments which he used to show the absurdities and contradictions of his opponents. biography.yourdictionary.com/zeno-of-elea
Zeno of Citium
Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
"writings provide the clearest view of this development of Judaism in the Diaspora."
believed in allegorical method of reading texts britannica.com/biography/Philo-Judaeus
Philo of Alexandria
Attended school of Stoicism
influenced Junius Rusticus, Marcus Aurelius and more
Born a slave to a wealthy man
"remembered for the religious tone of his teachings, which commended him to numerous early Christian thinkers."
One of the most respected emperors in Roman history
attended school of Hellenistic Philosophy
Was a dedicated student to latin and Greek but focused primarily on Stoicism.
Took control of Roman empire in 161
Influenced by Plato and followed his teachings
considered to be the co-founder of neoplatonism
" Plotinus developed a complex spiritual cosmology involving three foundational elements: the One, the Intelligence, and the Soul." iep.utm.edu/plotinus/
Christian theologian and philosopher
Believed that time is infinite because God created it.
Believed that everyone is morally responsible for their actions.
important early figure in the development of Western Christianity
His philosophy was based on the necessary existence of God. His theories were based on the soul, intellect and the cosmos
Aspired to pair islamic theology and philosophy
Aquinas "believed that God exists, is infinite, eternal, and unchanging and that this can be proven through reason. He famously offers five proofs of God's existence, including the Argument from Design." philosimply.com/philosopher/aquinas-thomas
William of Ockham
believed God had wanted to, he could have become incarnate as a donkey or an ox, or even as both a donkey and a man at the same time.
During medieval era
Studied with best teachers in Maghreb because of family's rank
"known as father of modern social science and cultural history" http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?
One of humanity's major thinkers
French philosopher, scientist and mathematician
known for making connection between geometry and algebra, this helped with solving geometrical equations
Influenced by Plato, Aristotle, William Harvey etc.
earned law degree at age 22
known for his ethics
Believed in metaphysics where God and nature are defined
influenced by Hobbes, Parmenides, Aristotle etc.
Spinoza believed that God is “the sum of the natural and physical laws of the universe and certainly not an individual entity or creator”. wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy_of_Baruch_Spinoza
known for advancement of his theory called immateralism (subject idealism)
Berkeley believed that "once he has established idealism, he has a novel and convincing argument for God's existence as the cause of our sensory ideas. plato.stanford.edu/entries/berkeley/
John Locke's political theory= "Locke believed that human nature is characterised by reason and tolerance." wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Locke
Influenced by Avicenna, Aquinas, Descartes, Robert Filmer etc.
German philosopher, mathemitian and logician
Co-founder of calculus
"invented the differential and integral calculus " mally.stanford.edu/leibniz.html
also contributed to theories on energy, time and force
influenced by Euclid, Rene Descartes, Archimedes etc.
French enlightenment writer
famous for criticism of Christianity and wit
"very much interested in the natural laws that were underlying in all religions. Voltaire, like most Enlightenment thinkers, considered himself a deist." enotes.com/homework-help/what-were-main-ideas-voltaire
influenced by Isaac Newton, John Locke, William Shakespeare etc.
"In contrary to rationalists such as Descartes, Hume argued that it is not reason that governs human behaviour but desire instead." philosophers.co.uk/david-hume.html
English philosopher, social reformer and jurist
founder of utilitarianism
believed that "pleasure and pain govern not only how human beings act but also how human beings ought to act" philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/notes-bentham.html
Believed in happiness
influenced by John Locke, Hobbes, Adam smith etc
argued that space, time and causation are mere perception
had major influence on politcal theory and ethics
influenced by David Hume, Aristotle etc
"strongly believed in the innate goodness of man and in basic human rights founded upon universal natural law" enotes.com/homework-help/what-did-jean-jacques-rousseau
Believed in Civil religion
believed in absolute idealism
influenced by Plato, Aristotle, Heraclitus, Adam Smith etc
work was based on concepts of freedom, reason, self-consciousness and recognition.
best known for "The world as will and representation" study
influenced by Immanuel Kant, Plato, David Hume, John Locke etc.
German philosopher, socialist revolutionary, economist
studied law and philosophy
founder of Marxism ("the political and economic theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, later developed by their followers to form the basis for the theory and practice of communism"). dictionary.com/Marxism
influenced by Friedrich Engels, Adam smith, August Comte
believed one either lives by faith (religion) or
influenced by ethics
"argued life is only worth living if you have total faith in God." study.com/academy/lesson/soren-kierkegaards
British philosopher, civil servant and political economist
main study was ethics and political philosophy
part of the development of utilitarianism and "political theory that's goal was to maximize the personal liberty of all citizens" owlcation.com/humanities/Key-Concepts-of-the-Philosphy-of-John-Stuart-Mill
American philosopher, logician, scientist and mathematician
known as 'the father of pragmatism'
influenced by William Kant, Georg Hegel, Benjamin Peirce etc.
"Peirce’s approach to philosophy is that of an established scientist; he treated philosophy as an interactive and experimental discipline." iep.utm.edu/peircebi/
Influenced by Duns Scotus, Immanuel Kant etc.
American psychologist and philosopher
known as 'father of american psychology'
"William James' lectures, writings and theories were organized around the dual principles of functionalism and pragmatism." study.com/academy/lesson/william-james-psychology-theories-lesson-quiz.html
influenced by John stuart mill, Charles Peirce, Blaise Pascal etc
studies truth, morality, language, power, consciousness and the meaning of existence
Believed the only structure of the world is what we give it
influenced by Arthur Schopenhauer, Plato, Socrates, Aristotle etc.
Studied Philosophy of language and mind
contributed to conversations on metaphysics, logic, ethics and the way that we should live in the world
American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer
"Dewey believed that human beings learn through a 'hands-on' approach. This placesDewey in the educational philosophy of pragmatism. Pragmatists believe that reality must be experienced." study.com/academy/lesson/john-dewey
influenced by William James, Charles Darwin, Henry George etc
founder of school of phenomenology
"Husserl further conceived phenomenology as a foundational science and as a presupposition less philosophy. Husserl was primarily a mathematician and logician." nptel.ac.in/courses/109106051/Module%205/Chapter%2032.pdf
German philosopher and seminal thinker
"work in ontology (the philosophical study of being, or existence) and metaphysics determined the course of 20th-century philosophy.." britannica.com/biography/Martin-Heidegger
influenced by Plato, Hegel, Rousseau etc.
German Jewish Philosopher
influenced by Edmund Husserl
Studied the visible world and the world of ideas and values
Edith was murdered during the Holocaust in 1951.
French philosopher, novelist, biographer and literary critic
"a philosophy acclaiming the freedom of the individual human being." britannica.com/biography/Jean-Paul-Sartre
believed being human is characterized by an existence that precedes its essence.
introduced concept of falsifiability ("if it is contradicted by a basic statement, which, in an eventual successful or failed falsification, must respectively correspond to a true or hypothetical observation.") en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falsifiability
influenced by Schopenhauer, Einstein, Hume etc.
"best known for his 1960 magnum opus Truth and Method on hermeneutics. He was a Protestant Christian." en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans-Georg_Gadamer
influenced by Hegel, Plato, Aristotle etc.
British philosopher of language
developed theory of speech acts
influenced by Bertrand Russel, Gilbert Ryle etc.
made a number of contributions in various areas of philosophy, including important work on knowledge, perception, action, freedom, truth, language, and the use of language in speech acts plato.stanford.edu/entries/austin-jl/
French Philosopher, author and journalist
Views contributed to absurdism
received a Nobel prize in literature in 1957
Influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche, Victor Hugo, Jean-Paul Sartre
American physicist, historian and philosopher of science
wrote controversial book "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions"
"A paradigm shift, a concept identified by Kuhn, is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline." wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigm_shift
Hungarian Philosopher of mathematics and science
"known for his thesis of the fallibility of mathematics and its 'methodology of proofs and refutations' in its pre-axiomatic stages" en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imre_Lakatos
Influenced by Karl popper, Thomas Kuhn, Karl Marx etc.
known for his contribution to "moral and political philosophy, but also known for his work in history of philosophy and theology." .wikipedia.org/wiki/Alasdair_MacIntyre
Influenced by John Rawls, Aristotle, Friedrich Nietzsche etc.
attended Yale university and the university of Chicago
Studied post analytic philosophy
Influenced by Plato, Friedrich Nietzsche etc
"the current Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, where she is jointly appointed in the law school and the philosophy department."
Influenced by Adam Smith, Bernard Williams, Stanley cavell etc.
"best known for his contributions to political philosophy, the philosophy of social science, the history of philosophy, and intellectual history." wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Taylor_(philosopher)
American philosopher and theologian
Professor of Christian philosophy at Fuller theological seminary