-ADHD is a disorder that affects 5% to 10% of all children and is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder of children.
- Key symptoms include hyperactivity, impulsivity, and trouble paying attention. Children with ADHD may be hyperactive and unable to control their impulses, interfering with school and home life.
-The behaviors typically appear before the age of seven and can affect boys 2 to 3 times more than girls.
ADHD first mentioned by George Still. Those affected seemed to have a hard time handling their behavior.
ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in children today.
The use of Benzedrine was discovered by Dr. Charles Bradley
The first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) was published with no mention of ADHD or like disorders.
Hyperkinetic Impulse Disorder was the first term used to describe children with ADHD.
The second edition of the DSM was published, mentioning the disorder and alike syndromes.
The third edition of DSM included Attention Deficit Disorder, including its subtypes.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act allowed qualifying students with ADHD to get additional services and help at school.
Strattera, the first non-stimulant treatment for ADHD approved.
The FDA approved Ritalin, a psycho stimulant. A popular treatment for the disorder.
OVERVIEW OF THE ECOLOGICAL MODEL
The individual level, the child and their traits, flaws, strengths and potentials.
The microsystem, work that is done with the child’s parents.
The exosystemic level, working with the teacher and the teaching assistant.
the outermost layer used to describe the larger cultural influences on a child’s life
MACROSYSTEM INFLUENCES ON EXOSYSTEM
Macrosystems are not only described in structural terms but are seen as carriers of information or advertisers. Advertising promotes images that seem to "hype up" consumers and attract attention. Advertising is the overarching institution that impacts the culture of ADHD. At this level, doctors, teachers, and families are influenced by the decision to medicate for the treatment of ADHD. Society determines what is socially acceptable behavior for children. When a child deviates from these standards, of behavior, he or she could be given the label of hyperactive or inattentive. Society's beliefs influence the acceptance of ADHD and even the use of ADHD medicine. ADHD was once viewed as just a behavioral issue and described by using the term Hyperkinetic Impulse Disorder. The macrosystemic factors affect the exosystemic because of the cultural belief that ADHD should be shameful and adults must be able to "push through it" in the workplace. However, the ADA normalizes the disability and makes modifications in the workplace in order to accommodate all individuals too. Today, society encompasses the most influential part of a child's life. By recognizing this, we are able to help shape the way children prosper.
Recommendations made to patients regarding treatment, consumer advertising on television, and in magazines are examples of systems in place that impact the cultural beliefs related to the treatment of ADHD. These influences do not directly impact the child but are indirectly influential to the individual, as well as the ADHD phenomenon in the United States. This refers to the level of influence known as the exosystem. The exosystem is an extension of the mesosystem, which embraces social structures, both formal and informal, that do not include the person but the immediate setting in which they are found. The services available influence societies beliefs. An example of this is Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. This allowed qualifying students with ADHD to get additional services and help at school. Bringing this sense of support in the classroom shifted societies views on the disorder and its overall acceptance. By giving a child the opportunity and equipment to succeed, they are less willing to fall behind due to their learning ability.
EXOSYSTEMS INFLUENCE ON THE MACROSYSTEM
A MAP OF BIDIRECTIONAL INFLUENCES
Located in Eugene, Oregon, Thrive Behavioral Health works with children, parents, schools, health care providers and other agencies involved with behavioral and developmental care. With guidance and support, Thrive is able to help children and families flourish. Thrive uses one on one assessments, interviews with parents, and teacher input to make a diagnosis, and learn techniques to help make learning and living with ADHD easier.
Located in Eugene is The Vista ADHD Clinic. A team of highly trained professionals offers evaluations, counseling/coaching, and medication consultations for those struggling with focus, attention, learning, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The Vista ADHD clinic has multiple locations in Oregon, with clinics in Bend and Portland as well.
Sir George Still: A British pediatrician who was first to mention ADHD in 1902. Describing it as, "an abnormal defect of moral control in children.” He found that some affected children could not control their behavior the way a typical child would, but they were still intelligent.
Charles Bradley: Dr. Charles Bradley was first to find unexpected side effects of Benzedrine. Young patients improved in performance in school when given the medication.
C. Keith Conners: Publisher of a study on the effects of Ritalin in emotionally disturbed children, creating a break through in treatment options in ADHD History.
Dr. Joseph Biederman: One of the first to publish one of hundreds of medical clinical studies about children with ADHD.
Virginia Douglas: Discovered that those affected were not just hyperactive, but had an attention deficit. Her theory grew widely and her researched proved her to be correct. Douglas led to the change of the disorder being labeled as attention deficit disorder.
Wender, Paul H. ADHD: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adults. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2001.
Volkow, Nora D, and James M Swanson. "Clinical Practice: Adult Attention Deficit-hyperactivity Disorder." The New England Journal of Medicine 369.20 (2013): 1935-44. Web.
National Institutes of Health . Continuing Medical Education. Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Bethesda, Md.?]: National Institutes of Health/Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences : Continuing Medical Education, National Institutes of Health, Office of the Director, 1998. Print. NIH Consensus Statement ; Vol. 16, No. 2.
Cadoree, Michelle., and Library of Congress. Science Technology Division. Reference Section. Attention Deficit-hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Washington, D.C. (101 Independence Ave., S.E., Washington 20540): Science Reference Section, Science and Technology Division, Library of Congress, 1997. Print. LC Science Tracer Bullet ; TB 97-3.
Nguyen, Minh N, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway, Jennie L Hill, Mohammad Siahpush, Melissa K Tibbits, and Christopher Wichman. "Ecological Model of School Engagement and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder in School-aged Children." European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (2018): 1-11. Web.