Student seminar by: B. Arant, M. Clark, L. Guillermo, C. Moody, V. Rumbold
What is Schizophrenia
Signs and Symptoms
Treatment and Pharmacological Options
Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder that affects the way a person thinks, feels and acts.
The patient may have difficulty distinguishing between what is real and what is imaginary. The patient may be withdrawn and have difficulty expressing normal emotions in social situations.
The risk for suicide is a major concern among these patients. About one-third of the people with schizophrenia will attempt suicide, and about 1 in 10 will die from the act.
What is Schizophrenia?
Phase I: Premorbid Phase
Phase II: Prodromal Phase
Phase III: Active Psychotic Phase (Acute Schizophrenic Episode)
Phase IV: Residual Phase
What is schizophrenia?
A spectrum of disorders
DSM-5 definition and criteria
The cause of schizophrenia is still unclear. It is believed that several factors may increase a persons chance of having the disease. Schizophrenia probably results from a combination of influences including: biological, psychological and environmental factors.
Studies show that relatives of individuals with schizophrenia have a much higher probability of developing the disease.
This theory suggest that schizophrenia is caused by a “chemical imbalance” I the brain such as excess of dopamine- dependent neuronal activity in the brain or a imbalance pf serotonin in the brain.
Viral infections and babies whose mother gets the flu when she is pregnant are at high risk of developing schizophrenia later in life.
Brain abnormalities have been observed in individuals with schizophrenia.
Several medical conditions are known to cause acute psychotic episodes such as: Huntington’s disease, hypo/hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, calcium imbalances, temporal lobe epilepsy, Wilson’s disease, CNS neoplasm, encephalitis, meningitis, neurosyphilis and stroke.
Deviant or "added" symptoms
present in schizophrenia but would otherwise be absent.
Symptoms tend to decrease over time and respond well to treatment.
Absence or decrease in normal functions.
Symptoms tend to become more severe and socially debilitating.
Disturbances in thought content
Abstract Thinking, Impaired
Disturbances in thought processes manifested in speech
Disturbances in perception
Pacing and Rocking
Eye Movement Abnormalities
Social Skill Training
Medications for schizophrenia concentrate on neurotransmitters in the brain. Each drug works on a specific neurotransmitter to help reduce signs and symptoms of schizophrenia.
Second generation, novel or atypical, antipsychotics: 5-HT Antagonist and D2 Antagonist
These drugs work more specifically on the neurotransmitter serotonin. They also weakly work on dopamine receptors. They have milder affinity for acetylcholine, norepinephrine, and histamine.
Antipsychotics The drug of choice
First generation, conventional or typical, antipsychotics: D2 Antagonists
These drugs work to reduce dopamine transmission in the brain. They also have milder affinity for the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.
What are the side effects?
Both generations of drugs present their fair share of side effects.
The first generation antipsychotics present side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms, anticholinergic effects, weight gain, sedation, and tachycardia.
The second generation presents side effects such as sexual dysfunction, GI disturbance, anticholinergic effects, sedation, insomnia, tachycardia, and tremors.
Reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia.
Decrease the length of psychotic episodes.
Reduce the possibility for new episodes of delusions and hallucinations to occur.
Help provide people with schizophrenia the opportunity to live more satisfying and productive lives.
Which of the following are phases of Schizophrenia? Select all that apply
A. Phase I: Premorbid Phase
B. Phase II: Prodromal Phase
C. Phase III: Active Depressive Phase
D. Phase IV: Residual Phase
The nurse is conveying the news of a family member's death to a client with schizophrenia. The nurse finds that the client is laughing after listening to the news. What does the nurse infer from the client's behavior? 1. Flat affect2. Anhedonia3. Inappropriate affect4. Emotional ambivalence
DO YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS?
Hurley, K. (2018, February 13). What is Schizophrenia? DSM-5 Schizophrenia Definition & Symptoms. Retrieved March 19, 2019 from https://www.psycom.net/schizophrenia-dsm-5-definition/
Townsend, M. C., & Morgan, K. I. (2018). Psychiatric mental health nursing: Concepts of care in evidence-based practice. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.