Creator: “... in 1973, when Steven Sasson, a young engineer, went to work for Eastman Kodak. Two years later he invented digital photography and made the first digital camera”(1).
Cost: “An entry-level digital camera costs from about $30 to $100”(2).
General Purpose: " ‘It was a photographic system to demonstrate the idea of an all-electronic camera that didn’t use film and didn’t use paper, and no consumables at all in the capturing and display of still photographic images’ ”(1).
Positive Impact: " ‘It means more and more people and things being photographed. And it all boils down to sharing…’"(3).
Negative Impact: " ‘Photography has become so easy meaning that people don't really think a photo has any intrinsic value. And what concerns me most is that photographers as a profession are being decimated by online thief’ "(3).
Creator: “... [Jacob Perkins] receiving a patent on his own design in 1834...the fridge was born”. (4)
Cost: Generally, a top-mounted freezer model is the least expensive, costing between $350 and $600. Bottom-mounted freezer refrigerators may cost about $800 to $1,200” (5).
General Purpose: “The fundamental reason for having a refrigerator is to keep food cold. Cold temperatures help food stay fresh longer. The basic idea behind refrigeration is to slow down the activity of bacteria (which all food contains) so that it takes longer for the bacteria to spoil the food” (6).
Negative Impact: “...refrigerators can be extremely harmful to the environment...Many refrigerants, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) damage the ozone layer…” (8)
Positive Impact: "There was less food waste because spoilage was under better control" (7).
Creator: "1990. John Galuskza, founder of Serendipity Systems, created an ebook display program called PC-Book. It featured numbered pages and bookmarks." (9)
Cost: “...the most commonly purchased ebooks range from $2.99 to $3.99, with $3.99 being most popular” (10)
Negative Impact: “Amazon e-books, where users are not only required to identify themselves to purchase an e-book, but also to accept "a restrictive license" on their use of it… ‘In some countries, Amazon says the user does not own the e-book’” (13).
General Purpose: “An eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book that can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader” (11).
Positive Impact: “The great hidden virtue of e-books—hidden beneath the chatter about their effect on the bottom line—is that they allow stories to be exactly as long as we want them to be. It turns out that many of them work best between 10,000 and 35,000 words long...” (12).