Wars in the 20th century
The Crimean War was fought on the Crimean Peninsula and lasted three years. After a dispute with the Ottoman Empire over the guardianship of several holy towns in Palenstine, Russia invanded Moldavia and Walachia, both part of the Ottoman Empire. This resulted in the Ottoman Empire declaring war on Russia. The Ottomans were joined by Britian, France and Sardinia, and Austria who threatened to enter the war, leading to Russia withdrawing from the occupied areas. The Crimean War marked the change over into modern warfare and caused the death of over 900,000 men
World War One
World War One began on the
28th July 1914 and lasted until
the 11th November 1918. It was
caused by unstable relationships between countries in Europe and an arms race built on competitivity and fear. However the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne in Austria-Hungary, triggered the start of the war. It was fought by the Allies (France, Great Britain, Russia and Romania) and Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Over 16 million people died and it lead to the signing of the Treaty of Versailles as well as inflation and debt. The main characteristics of World War One were trench warfare and the change in attitudes towards women working.
World War Two
World War Two began on the 1st of September 1939 and ended on the 2nd of September 1945. After the Treaty of Versailles left Germany in debt and weak, Hitler gained power and aimed to eventually gain control of the entire planet. The immediate cause of the war was the German's invasion of Poland, which broke the terms of the treaty and reuslted in Britain declaring war. Germany fought alongside Italy and Japan and British fought with the Soviet Union, the United States and France. The war resulted in the death of over 55 million people and the formation of the United Nations as well as the growth of communism in Europe and Asia which lead to the Cold War. The main characteristics of World War 2 were the Blitz and Air Raids
The Vietnam War began on the 1st of November 1955 and lasted until the 30th of April 1975. It was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam, with the north being supported by the USSR and China and the south being supported by the USA, Philippines and Australia. The Chinese communist government had control over the north and supported the civil war. The USA viewed this as communism potentially spreading all across Asia, so they decided to send money and military advisers to the South. The involvement of the US costed America $77 billion a year and 58,000 men. Over 2 million vietnamese civilians died on both sides.
Cambodian Civil War
Beginning 1967 and ending in 1975, the Cambodian Civil War was fought by the Communist party of Kampuchae and North Vietnam against the government forces of the Kingdom of Cambodia. The war began when many poor people in the Samlaut area of Cambodia rebelled against the government. The uprising spread through the area, as many of them were unhappy with the government, which they blamed for corruption and inequality. Because Sihanouk was out of the country, Prime Minister Lon Nol oversaw repressing the uprising. Lon Nol killed many poor people involved, but some of the leaders of the uprising escaped into the forest and joined the Khmer Rouge. The Khmer Rouge were supported by other communist groups in the region, including Vietnamese communists. Over 300,000 were killed by the war and over 20% of property was destroyed. The victory of the Khmer Rouge resulted in the Cambodian genocide which killed over 1 million people
"The Troubles" began in 1968 and ended in 1998. It was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland involving republican and loyalist paramilitaries, the British security forces, and civil rights groups. The conflict began during a campaign to end discrimination against Catholic/nationalist minority by the Protestant/unionist government and police force. The attempt of the authorities to suppress the campaign led to accusations of police brutality and was met with violence from loyalists. Increased intra-community conflict and violence between nationalist youths and police led to riots in 1969 and the deployment of British troops, who created walls to stop conflict between opposing communities. The army quickly became viewed as biased and hostile and led to the emergence of armed Paramilitary organisations which caused the warfare over the three decades. Over 3,500 lost their lives, mainly young people and conflict between communities still exist as a result of 'The Troubles"
The Gulf War, a conflict between Iraq and a coalition of 39 countries (including Saudi Arabia, The USA and the UK), began on the 2nd of August 1990 and lasted until the 28th of February 1991. The War began after Iraq invaded Kuwait, ordered by Saddam Hussein, which was met with immediate economic sanctions by the UN. The coalition was made to force Iraqi troops out of Kuwait and the US encouraged other countries in the coalition to send troops to Kuwait. The war ended with the Iraqi defeat and retreat from Kuwait. Over 100,000 Iraqi soldiers died and between 100,000 and 200,000 civilians died.
The Lebanese War was a 34 day long military conflict from 12th of July 2006 to the 14th August 2006. It was between Lebanon and Israel and began after Hezbollah,a Shi'a Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon abducted two Israeli soldiers on the border. It ended when a United Nations-brokered ceasefire went into effect and both sides claimed victory despite neither winning. Over 500 Hezbollah soldiers died, as well as over 1,000 lebanese citizens and 44 Israeli citizens and 144 members of the IDF