A globe is a good example to show us how the whole planet looks like. It also shows where lands and bodies of water are located. The grid system is represented by invisible lines that circle the globe, which are called longitude and latitude.
Longitude: Is the lines drawn from east to west. Latitude: Is the lines drawn from north to south.
Location of the White House in Washington, DC
Location of the Santa Monica Pier
Lon: -118.497629 Lat: 34.009176
- The equator is an imaginary line that circles the globe halfway between Earth’s North and South Pole. - Lines of latitude (parallels) measure north and south of the equator. - Lines of longitude (meridians) measure east and west of the prime meridian. - The prime meridian is an imaginary line drawn from the North Pole through Greenwich, England. - They are both measures in degrees. - The degrees are broken down into minutes for which each degree has 60 minutes. - Symbol used to represent minutes is: ‘
An example of latitude would be the equator, which is at zero degrees of latitude.
For example, New York and Miami have almost exactly the same longitudes: around 80 degrees WEST.
Parallels of North and South
- Parallels north of the equator are noted with N, and the parallels south of the equators are noted with S. - Lines of latitude space from 0 degrees , for positions on the equator, to 90 degrees north and 90 degrees south. - For locations in the north and south poles.Lines of longitude range from 0 degrees on the prime meridian to 180 degrees on a meridian in the mid pacific ocean .
Latitude and longitude of Kuwait is 29 degrees 30' N and 45 degrees 45' E.
Latitude and longitude of Arizona is 31° 20' N to 37° N and 109° 3' W to 114° 50' W.
- Geographers use grid lines to organize the world and to help us locate places. - The equator divides the globe into two halves known as hemispheres. The Northern Hemisphere is the half lying north of the equator. The southern half is known as the Southern Hemisphere. The Western and Eastern Hemispheres are formed by the division of the prime meridian and the 180 (degree) meridian.
For example, Kuwait is located in the Eastern and Northern hemisphere.
Another example is Australia which is located in the Southern and Eastern hemisphere.
- Geographers also organize our globe by dividing the land mass. - For example, the seven continents are Asia, Europe, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, North America and South America. The largest continent is Asia and the smallest in Australia. Islands are land masses smaller than continents and completely surrounded by bodies of water. The largest island is Greenland.
Melbourne is the Capital of Australia. Australia is both a country and a continent.
Examples of countries that are in South America are Brazil, Peru and Colombia.
Examples of countries in Europe are France, England and Germany.
The United States of America are also considered to be a part of North America.
Earth's Water Surface
- Geographers also organize Earth' water surface into separate areas.
- The largest area is the global ocean.
- Smaller bodies of water include seas, gulfs, and lakes.
- Lakes are inland bodies of water.
Locations of the Oceans
Using The Geographer's Tools - Organizing The Globe