Rebekah Angel, Adriana Resendiz, and Grace Lee Oakman
The 13th Amendment, which was ratified in 1865 abolished slavery in the United States, it read, " Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime where of the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist with in the United States, or and place subject to their jurisdiction."
Freedman Schools -1865
Many African Americans, attended Freedmen's schools that were created to educate newly freed slaves. They were begun by Northern missionary groups, later the government created the Freedmen's Bureau. African American classes were held in churches, warehouses, former slave markets, and homes. Many southerners worked against this however, and killed teachers, burned schools and resented funding of programs
The Black Code were laws passed by southern states in 1865 and 1866 in the United States after the American Civil War with the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.
The KKK ( Ku Klux Klan )
The Ku Klux Klan also known as the KKK was founded in !866 and extended into almost every southern state by the year 1870, it became a vehicle for white southern resistance to the Republican Party's Reconstruction era. Its members created an underground campaign of intimidation and violence targeting white and black Republican leaders. Even though Congress passed legislation designed to stop Klan terrorism, the organisation saw its main goal: reestablishment of white supremacy.
Sharecropping is the cycle where a sharecropper is provided land and seeds in exchange he promises the landowner half of the crop. The sharecropper buys food and clothing from the landowners store. The sharecropper then plants and harvests the crop. They then give the landowner their share of the crop. When settling up the land owner says that the share cropper owes more than he earned. To pay off debt the share cropper must promise a greater share of next years harvest.
The 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington was an elderly leader in effort to achieve equality. He founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama to help African Americans learn trades and gain economic strength .To gain white support and gain economic strength for Tuskegee, Booker T. Washington did not challenge segregation.Booker T. Washington was the first man of color to be invited to dine at the White House by President Teddy Roosevelt. When the public found out they were outraged.
Jim Crow Laws
The Jim Crow Laws were a set of local and state laws that prohibited blacks and enforced racial segregation, including separation of colored people and whites on pubic transport, separated colored and white children in schools, required colored people and whites to use separate water fountains. and many others
Plessy v Ferguson
Plessy v. Ferguson was a landmark 1896 U.S. supreme court decision that upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation under the the " separate but equal" doctrine. The case originated from an 1892 incident where an African-American train passenger, Homer Plessy refused to sit in a car for blacks.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
W.E.B. Du Bois is the man who encouraged African-Americans to reject segregation. In 1909, Du Bois and others founded the NAACP, which played a major role in the end of segregation. The NAACP continues to work for equality for people of color throughout the U.S.
The Great Migration
The Great Migration was the movement of thousands of African-Americans during the 1910s and the 1920s. African-Americans moved north, the reasons why vary from family to family. Some hoped to escape the racism of the south, others were looking for better educational and job opportunities, and some were moving north because they had family that lived there. The Great Migration is the largest and swiftest migrations in history.
A time line focusing on the Reconstruction of the US starting with the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery.