Between 1791 and 1804, Haiti gained their independence. This showed that slaves can could leave a successful life, and that they can revolt against their masters. In fact, this terrified slaveholders throughout the Americas. After the French Revolution broke out and declared that white men and slaves were equal, a slave rebellion was created. And in 1793, the French abolished slavery in Haiti.
Revolution in Haiti
Charles III wanted to change the way the colonial system worked. Trade was expanded and more Spanish merchants were brought to Latin America and the economic activity benefitted Spain.
18th Century Developments
In Latin America, the Creole elite, (merchants, professional people, etc.) led the movements against Spain and Portugal. They did not want to lose their economic and social privileges and they thought that gaining political independence from Spain and Portugal would not cause them to lose those rights.
Movements Towards Independence in Latin America
Spain suffered many military losses in the wars that were associated with the French Revolution and Napoleon. So, they were seeking new revenues and increased taxation and confiscation of property in the American empire. This harmed the economic life of the Creole elite. Napoleon's overthrow of the Portuguese Monarchy in 1807 and the Spanish government in 1808, was the breaking point of the Creole. They feared that a monarchy ruled by Napoleon's brother in Spain would harm their social and economic interests. So, Creole political committees formed between 1808 and 1810 and "claimed the right to govern regions of Latin America." After ten years of warfare, Spain conceded Latin American Independence.
Movements Towards Independence in Latin America (Continued)