KIRWAN INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF RACE AND ETHNICITY
Created as part of Kirwan's Implicit Bias Module Series.
We offer a special thanks to the Schott Foundation for Public Education for their support.
students were enrolled in public schools
During the 2013-14 school year, more than
Student Enrollment Demographics
School Discipline Landscape
Schools reported over 5,728,520 instances of suspension* or expulsion, nationwide.
*In-school & Out-of-school
Black students were 3.8 times more likely to receive an out-of-school suspension than White Students
Family support system
School Services & Community Investment
CONSIDERING OTHER FACTORS TO SUPPORT THE WHOLE STUDENT
Beyond discipline, many other factors are critical for student growth and education. All students deserve equitable access to these resources. However, institutional factors such as school poverty and interaction with law enforcement can contribute to discipline disparities.
Referral to Law Enforcement
schools with the highest poverty rates.*
Schools and families in disenfranchised communities have less access to services and resources that promote student success and well-being.
**75%-100% of students receiving
free or reduced price lunch
School poverty is highly associated with school discipline trends.
Increased rates of students who receive free and reduced price lunch is related to more discipline in the following areas:
DEMOGRAPHICS OF STUDENTS WHO ATTEND HIGEST POVERTY SCHOOLS
INTERACTIONS WITH LAW ENFORCEMENT
Student interaction with law enforcement in schools is a key contributing factor to later involvement with the juvenile justice system and are considered a critical link in the school-to-prison pipeline.
Data on these interactions yield particularly pronounced disparities between Black and White Students.
Percent of Student Enrollment
Percent of Student Interactions with Law Enforcement
Black/African American Students
This infographic illustrates the complexity of factors involved in determining student discipline decisions by painting a picture of systemic inequities in the education system. These outcomes did not happen overnight. Our policies, history, and the impact of implicit and explicit bias reinforce each other. This is why small-scale interventions and large-scale policy changes (and everything in between) must consider all of these factors to ensure students receive equitable opportunities and have positive outcomes.
ILLUSTRATING THE NEED FOR EQUITABLE POLICY AND DECISION-MAKING
GAO Congressional Report (public release), K-12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities, GAO-18-258, (Washington, D.C.: April 4, 2018).
U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, 2013-14 Civil Rights Data Collection: A First Look (Washington, D.C.: April 2018).
U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, 2015-16 Civil Rights Data Collection: School Climate and School Safety (Washington, D.C.: October 2016).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Addressing Implicit Bias in the Early Childhood System (Washington, D.C.: December 2016).
CREATED BY KIRWAN INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF RACE AND ETHNICITY
Discipline Equity Infographic: National Trends
Produced by the Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity for our Implicit Bias Module Series