The first public school, Boston Latin School, opened in 1635 in Massachusetts. It was created after the influence of the Free Grammar School in England. It's purpose was to prepare young men for the University and it only allowed male students and teachers.
Birth of the Teachers' Union
The National Teachers Association was founded in 1857 by 43 members in Philadelphia. It's main purpose is to "elevate the character and advance the interests of the profession of teaching, and to promote the cause of popular education in the United States."
Assimilation/ Forced to go to School
In the beginning of the 19th century many native american children were forced to go to government/church run boarding schools that essentially assimilated them. Many were separated from their families and could not practice their native culture or speak their language. The first school established was Carlisle Indian School. Many of the large boarding schools closed in the the 1980's.
Plessy vs Ferguson created the "separate but equal" phrase. It was a Supreme Court case in 1896 that legally allowed segregated public places. The all white schools seemed to have better equipment and better education than the all blacks.
Free Public School 1918
In 1918 all states made it mandatory for all children to attend public school.
During the 1920's education increased to "scientific" techniques such as intelligence testing and cost-benefit management. Progressive educators insisted on the importance of the emotional, artistic, and creative aspects of human development. The progressive education movement expanded the idea of whom schooling should be for and how it could occur. John Dewy said that the students will learn through experience
Brown vs Board of Education
Supreme Court rules an end to segregated schools in 1954. This legally allowed an entire race access to the better quality education, educational settings, and materials that white students already had.
Little Rock 9
Three years after the Brown vs Board case, nine African African American students were choose to attend Central High School. The governor refused to let the students enter and had guards guarding the doors. The students were not allowed in for weeks until president Eisenhower sent army troops to Little Rock.
No Child Left Behind Act (2001)
It is the most recent update to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. It put a focus on making sure that states and schools boost the performance of certain groups of students, such as English-language learners, students in special education, and poor and minority children.
Common Core State Standards (2009)
Common core standards are a state effort to unify education across the country. They are nationwide standards that all children will be learning no matter where they are.