All things are created perfectly by God. Great Chain of Being - Natural order of living things helps justify social order that exists
Georges Cuvier. Major geological events are responsible for extinct fossils. Only catastrophic circumstances could cause evidence to go against the great chain of being and fixity of species theory
Inheritance of acquired characteristics and spontaneous generation of new traits. Was the first one to bring up idea of variation and change in species
Proposed by James Hutton. Change is gradual, observable, and requires a depth of time. Proposed as a contrast to catastrophism.
Resources are Limited
Idea proposed by Thomas Malthus. The growth of a population will outrun its ability to feed itself (carrying capacity). Now there is the idea that there is a finite number of resources.
Brought up the idea of "descent with modification" after observing finches with different beaks on the Galapagos islands. Proposed the idea of natural selection: Differences in survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype without intent. He realized that evolution by natural selection occurs gradually and acts on populations, not individuals, and that natural selection acts on existing traits.