Civil Rights acts go all the way back to the 1800s but this timeline will be focusing on the 1950s and on because it's when Civil Rights acts began to truly make an impact.
Racial segregation was ended by the U.S. Supreme Court. The Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) decision that permitted “separate but equal” facilities for black and white was extirpated.
Brown v Board of Education
The Emmett Till Murder
Bus Boycott Supreme Court Case Begins
A fourteen year old Emmett Till was murdered a white woman in a store because she was dared to. Emmett Till was a catalyst for the civil rights movement.
Rosa Parks is arrested for breaking the bus segregation laws in Montgomery. She caused a U.S. supreme court case to be initiated.
On Dec 1st After more than a year the legal fight is over. The Montgomery bus segregation laws abolishment caused further fueling the civil rights movement.
Bus Boycott Court Case Results
Nine black students were blocked from entering Little Rock’s Central High School by National Guard troops because of Arkansas’s governor Orval E Faubus. This happened despite the new anti-segregation court orders. President Dwight D Eisenhower sends in federal soldiers to escort those students in for a whole year to show that the federal government wouldn’t tolerate states to ignore court orders.
The Little Rock School Crisis
Ezell Blair Jr., David Richmond, Franklin McCainand Joseph McNeil, four black students in Greensboro, North Carolina refuse to move from a segregated lunch counter when they were denied service.
The Greensboro Four
Martin Luther King is Jailed during an anti-segregation protest.
In Birmingham, Alabama Mayor Bull Connor and Police Chief Jamie Moore make a court order banning all protesting in order to keep African American's from protesting. In 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. led a peaceful protest with 53 other protesters. All protesters were arrested and put in the Birmingham jail.
Another peaceful protest is held in Birmingham Alabama when Police Commissioner Eugene Conner’s men use high power fire hoses and police dogs on protestors. Sympathy is felt for the civil rights activist all around the U.S.
The Birmingham Catastrophe
Around 200,000 People March on Washington
About 200,000 people march on Washington for Jobs and Freedom and Martin Luther King Jr. gives his historic “I Have A Dream” speech. This march became one of if not the most historical peaceful protests in U.S. history.
Four young black girls were bombed in a Birmingham church by the KKK. Three members of the KKK were found guilty but suffered no charges. This horrifying situation show how far the U.S. has come since then.
Four Black Girls Bombed in Church
24th Amendment Abolishes the Poll Tax
The Supreme Court made The 24th Amendment abolished making the poll tax in five remaining Southern states that still used it unable to keep blacks from voting. This makes it so that black Civil Rights activists don’t have to go to a different state to vote.
Freedom Summer was a voter registration project in Mississippi because Mississippi had the least amount of black voters in any state. The KKK, police, state and local authorities violently attack the activists with arson, beatings, false arrest and murder. Two white men Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and a black man James Chaney were murdered and others were injured.
Voting Rights Act
The 1965 Voting Rights Act provides federal protection for black voters. This ensures that crimes against black voters will be held accountable.
Martin Luther King Jr. travels to Memphis, Tennessee, to support striking sanitation workers. While there he was supposedly assassinated by white racist James Earl Ray. Today we are still unsure if he had actually killed Martin Luther King Jr. or if he was framed.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Martin Luther King Jr. Is Assassinated
President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968 which prohibits discrimination in the sale, rental and financing of housing. This made it so that black people could live in a safe neighborhood and better conditioned houses. This brought a lot of blacks out of poverty.