of the Basques' Struggle for Self-Determination and the Terrorist Group, ETA's Part in the Fight
A Historical Timeline
ETA is formed during the fascist dictatorship of General Francisco Franco to fight for Basque self-determination.
ETA carries out first killing: victim is Meliton Manzanas, police chief in the Basque city of San Sebastian.
Franco’s Prime Minister Luis Carrero Blanco is killed when his car drives over explosives planted by ETA in Madrid.
In its bloodiest year, ETA kills nearly 100 people despite Spain’s return to democracy.
Members of Spanish security forces set up Anti-Terrorist Liberation Groups (GAL) to fight covert war against ETA. GAL kills 28 people from 1983-1987.
Twelve Civil Guards are killed in Madrid and 50 wounded. Juan Manuel Soares, a repentant Basque separatist, will be sentenced to 1,401 years in jail in April 2000 for the killings.
Socialists win another election, but with a slim majority. They gradually lose support, tainted by scandal surrounding the government’s role in GAL.
ETA announces a truce which ends in December 1999.
New Socialist Prime Minister Zapatero appeals to ETA to give up the fight, after the arrest of a suspected leader.
March 22, 2006
ETA declares a permanent ceasefire, which comes into force two days later.
ETA suspects kill two Guardia Civil policemen working undercover in France.
Zapatero rules out any chance of peace talks with ETA and says its only option is unilateral surrender.
March 7, 2008
Isaias Carrasco, former councilor for the Socialist Party, is killed in Mondragon. ETA later claims responsibility.
November 5, 2008
ETA claims responsibility for 10 bombings and says it will press its campaign for Basque rights.
ETA’s suspected military leader, Garikoitz Aspiazu Rubina, known by aliases “Txeroki” or “Cherokee,” is arrested in France’s Pyrenean region, near the Spanish border.
November 17, 2008
April 18, 2009
Jurdan Martitegi, ETA’s new military leader known as “the giant,” is arrested in southern France.
November 14, 2009
Calls for talks between ETA and Spain based on principles used in Northern Ireland’s peace process. Spain rejects the overtures the next day.
February 28, 2010
Ibon Gogeascoechea, ETA’s latest leader, who has been on the run since 1997, is arrested in Normandy.
September 5, 2010
ETA decides to stop carrying out armed attacks, according to a statement published by Basque-language newspaper, Gara.
ETA lays out conditions for an end to its violent campaign, warning that it reserves the right to defend itself during a so-called “ceasefire.”
September 26, 2010
“ETA has decided to declare a permanent and general ceasefire, which may be verified by the international community,” says a statement published on the website of Basque regional newspaper Gara.
January 10, 2011
— Spain rejects the ceasefire. Deputy Prime Minister Alfredo Perez Rubalcaba says ETA must permanently renounce violence and put a definitive and irreversible end to its activities.
ETA prisoners across Spain and France join a call for a permanent ceasefire by the separatist group. The government says the move is welcome, but that ETA must disband.
September 26, 2010
This instability forced many Basques to seek refuge elsewhere, causing a massive influx of Basques to America-- especially to Nevada. In the rural ranges of Elko and beyond, Basque sheepherders found peace and new way of life. One of the oldest, and most-well-known Basque restaurants is in the heart of Reno, NV. They brought not only their culture, but their language, food and vivid stories of the past, during the turmoil in Spain and the Basque Country.
Tension still exists today between Basques and the rest of the world, especially Spain and France. However, peace is more prevalent now than it ever was. There are Basque cultural centers all over the world to give representation to Basque culture, heritage, struggle and triumph. Basque culture, tradition and heritage are maintained and appreciated throughout Nevada and the world.
RESOURCES Reuters (https://reut.rs/2Lpdczx)
CREATED BY Logan Schauer
A timeline of the Basques' fight for self-determination and the terrorist group, ETA's role in the fight.