- Allowed books to be mass produced at a fraction of the cost of conventional printing methods.
Johannes Gutenberg 1440
Positive implications- Books became cheaper, knowledge could be mass produced and shared quickly.
- More people had access to literature, allowing content to reach a larger audience.
Negative implications- Propaganda could be mass produced, a large amount of paper and inks are needed resulting in environmental concerns.
Joseph Nicéphore Niépce 1816
- Gave us the ability to capture a moment in time on a physical image known as the photograph.
-Stories can be told with visual aids and references, or solely with photographs.
- Positive implications- people are able to capture and share their memories, a whole new art form was born with photography, provides physical evidence that can be used in research.
-Negative implications- photographs can be taken out of context, or used in malicious ways.
- FAX MACHINE
Alexander Bain 1843
- Text and images can be sent over long distances in a matter of seconds.
- Information was shared more quickly, becoming a staple in the business world.
- Positive implications people didn’t have to rely on the postal service to send a document or image, it could be done instantly with the push of a few buttons.
- Negative implications- Require a lot of maintenance. Ink, paper and toner expenses.
Alexander Graham Bell 1876
- Revolutionized interpersonal communication by allowing people to talk to each other directly from anywhere in the world, at any time.
- People are able to hear each other's voices in real time, they can communicate immediately and concisely, with emotion.
- Positive implications- Extremely useful in emergency situations, business settings, political settings, public outreach programs, etc. Allowed information to be shared at a rapid pace.
- Negative implications- Long distance communication is very costly. Telemarketers.
Developed in 1830-1844 by Samuel Morse
- Revolutionized long distance communication.
- Made immediate communication possible over long distances, even across oceans.
- Positive implications help could be acquired quickly in cases of emergencies (S.O.S.), faster means of sending a message rather than relying on messengers and postal services.
- Negative implications- lacked quality in communication, only useful for short and concise messages.
Invented in 1878 by Thomas Edison
- Allowed people to listen to recorded music and information from their own home for the first time.
- Opened the doors to recorded music and audio, essentially paving the way for the music industry.
- Positive implications: people could listen to music from the comfort of their own homes, blind people could listen to book recordings, people could learn from recorded lectures.
- Negative implications: The recordings were often short, requiring more cylinders which were hard to come by.
Motion Picture Camera
Auguste and Louis Lumière 1895
- Gave birth to motion pictures and cinema, changing the format for how stories are told.
- Created a whole new industry in the world of communications and media.
- Positive implications- created a new art form and medium for storytelling, gave us the ability to capture events in motion as they’re happening.
-Negative implications- Can be used as a tool to spread hate and propaganda.
Guglielmo Marconi 1895
-Allowed wireless communication across great distances.
- Stories, music, and all kinds of information, can be transmitted and received by millions of people simultaneously.
- Positive implications- people have cheap access to media content at anytime. Effective means of communication with ships and aircraft, and within first responder and military units.
- Negative implications- can be used as a platform to promote fake news, and manipulate the masses.
Philo Taylor Farnsworth 1928
- It influenced the way that people think, it communicated with society through television programs and commercials.
- The television brought the world to family’s homes. Television programs shaped the way people acted, they started emulating the actors they seen on screen.
- The positive aspect of television is that it was a way people could watch education programs and overall be more informed.
- The negative aspect is television made people less active causing obesity and misinformation is widespread.
Arthur C. Clarke 1945
For the first-time people could communicate through phones without the need to first connect to operators.
Gave the public access to something previously only reserved for the military, connecting people through different media outlets.
The negative aspect: The fact that they need to be serviced every couple of years, only problem being they are in outer space making a trip up rather pricey.
Positive: could be just how fast it made connections possible between 2 people around the world.
Martin Cooper 1973
- Cell Phone took all the positive things that a landline phone had and made it mobile. Individuals could reach someone no matter the location or time
- Allowed people to talk all around the world, people where finally reachable. The ability to communicate via text messaging and get a response in real time.
- Positive aspect: cell phone, people could call for assistance instantly, before if there was an emergency the only reliance that people had was from phone booths.
- Negative aspects that cell phones are that depending on the individual’s coverage, there are dropped calls when there’s a bad connection because of its heavy reliance on cell towers.
James Russell 1983
-The fact of its ability to bring audio to people in a new form. Interestingly, the CD became the most used technology for music companies
- The CD become the gold standard for how people listened to audio, it became the lead standard for the consumption of a mass communication medium, music
- The positive impact it had was it gave musicians the ability to make longer songs that had the same sound quality as old phonograph records.
- The negative impact is it had to mass communication is that it made it easier for people to duplicate music because of how easy it was to burn media onto the CD from a computer
Toshiba, Philips, Sony and Time Warner 1986
- It took a strong reign over the global audio and video market by replacing videotapes, video cartridges and laserdiscs as the mainstream format
-CD-like format and priced under 20 bucks would make consumers to buy instead of rent DVDs
- The positive impact it had was it saved companies and consumers money because of how light weight DVD were, that coupled with cheap material it was made from.
- The negative aspect being the cheap material makes it possible for the DVD to get scratched causing it to have a corrupted video.
Tim Berners-Lee 1990
- The internet is a place that people can connect all over the world it made the sharing of information instantaneous.
-The influence of the internet can be seen in almost all aspects of life today, whether it's going online to do research or just emailing a work colleague. Furthermore, with websites like Facebook and Twitter people now more than ever are connected.
-Positive aspects of the internet greatly outweigh the harm, people now have all of the world’s information at their fingertips.
-Negative aspects being its lack of regulation, it’s easy in hide nefarious acts like human trafficking and trolling (online harassing).
Steve Jobs 2007
- The smartphone is a derivative of the cell phone, but it’s a whole other breakthrough, it combined the cellphone with the computer making this union certainly unforgettable. Remarkably, this gave the smartphone the ability to connect people through a whole scope of communication outlets not limited to; texting, emailing, online messaging, and facetime calling.
- Smartphones have can be seen in present day, a lot of younger people couldn’t fathom a time where they couldn’t consume all their mass media all in one nifty device.
- The positive features that smartphones bring to mass communication is its ability to be a one-stop-shop of sorts. Furthermore, consumers can listen, watch, and talk all on the same device making it convenient.
- Negative connotations that smartphones have is that people are addicted to them, by being engulfed on what’s on their screens they get involved in avoidably accidents.