Lincoln granted amnesty to almost all of the confederates as long as they accepted that slavery was abolished, but says nothing about rights of the freed blacks.
Dated from 1865 to 1877, reconstruction was a time where laws were rewritten to allow rights for former slaves.
After Lincoln, came Andrew Johnson who is now viewed as a racist and who was unwilling to listen or work with congress. Johnson set-up new governments controlled by ex-confederates
The new southern governments enacted black codes, which were laws that limited the rights of thee freed slaves and forced them to go back and work on plantations.
While Johnson and the republican party struggled to get along, congress created a very important law in our history. The Civil Rights Act of 1866, it said anyone born in the united states, regardless of race, has the same rights.
In 1867, the Reconstruction Act was passed by congress, this encouraged the black vote and established new governments in the south, including new school systems.
Soon after, all of these governments began to fail, Rutherford B. Hayes took the office and ended further attempts at pursuing the rights of black citizens.
What soon came to haunt reconstruction was the rise of groups such as the KKK and other american terrorist groups set out on minority's, in the 1930's came the time of the Jim Crow Era.
Many saw the end of reconstruction as a failure for governments and democracy, in the United States and around the world.
During Reconstruction, Republicans had 20 to 30 percent of the white vote and almost all the black vote, soon after the republicans resorted to violence, and reconstruction came to an end.