The Science oF Music
simplicity vs complexity
Ever failed a test?
Distraction comes in every form.
Ever incorporated music in any way in studies?
- Possibility of utilizing music for study/work purposes.
HISTORY OF MUSIC IMPLEMENTATION
Napoleon's revolution (1789 - 1799)
First research on effects of music
music can play a major role in productivity
background information (Lit Review)
Certain Kinds of Music - Positive Effects on Cognition
Lack Of Understanding Musical Importance Poses Threats
- Music Use In Classrooms
- Music Use In Workforce
- Music Arts in education
phases of musical influence
Beat and Rhythm of a piece of music is defined.
A melody is established; as well as recurring themes and harmonies.
These elements work together to trigger specific emotional nerves in the brain.
Nerves then stimulates a specific emotional response.
Allyson Korcyznski's 2003 study on folk and classical music's effects on work
Melissa Reinoak's 2005 research on music effects on radiologists's work productivity.
Research question and Goals
Which type of music most significantly affects student work productivity, whether it be positive or negative?
- To test various music types
- Address the argument of distraction
Classic music would improve productivity, while lyrical music would hinder.
Type of Experiment Used - True Experiment
Cause & Effect
Each tests will vary in question numbers but remain constant in difficulty.
A control group will be present
Participants used headphones for maximum audio quality and less outside distractions.
Math portion took 15 minutes
Memorization took 5 minutes
Analyzing results - Total Math Correct Questions
data analysis cont.
Strong Correlation between music and productivity was evident.
Math Results were more evenly dispersed.
Analyzing Data - Total Memorization Questions correct
Data Analysis Cont.
Data per individual
Students that Exhibited identical scores across tests - in line with trend
Students that were outliers - Out of line with trend
Ambient music enhanced productivity the most, while the rap song negatively affected productivity the most.
General trend of calming music without lyrics tend to enhance student productivity while any song with lyrics will distract students from working.
Implications pt. 1 - Individual Preference
Data cannot be used to make a precise generalization for a larger population.
What may work for some may not work for others.
Implications pt. 2 - Outliers
Some students actually performed better on the song that hindered other students' productivity.
This ties in with Individual Preference.
No matter what music is tested among similar individuals, there will always be variation in data.
LIMITATIONS - Sample size
The sample size used in total were 9 participants.
- Lack of time to perform research with time constraints.
- Lack of options for finding participants.
- However, this number of participants may be enough to showcase a trend.
Limitations - Setting
Test was administered by students and take all in one sitting.
- Lower Testing Standards
- Breaks were utilized to combat the setting limitations, but may still play a role in decline of scores, as taking 4 tests in a short span of time adds a level of pressure.
what does this mean?
- Music with lyrics will be distracting in most cases of productivity - Busch.
- Ambient music showcased the most helpful in improving productivity (May not be many's first choice)
Further studies can be done to further enhance understanding.
1. Different Genres
2. Different settings
3. Different styles of tests
4. More and diversify participants
DeLoach, Alana. “Tuning the cognitive environment:
Sound masking with “natural” sounds in open-plan offices”. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Accessed Nov 11, 2018.
Dolegui, Arielle. “The Impact of Listening to Music on Cognitive Performance”(2013). Inquiries, Accessed Feb 13, 2019.
Reinoak, Melissa. “Baroque Classical Music In The Reading Room May Improve Mood AndProductivity”. American Roentgen Ray Society, Science News. Accessed Oct 15, 2018.
Herrington, Duncan. “Practical Applications of Music in Service Settings” Letters of Complication, Accessed Feb 15, 2019.
Fries, Dan, (2017). “How ambient music helps you concentrate.” Collective Evolution, Awareness. Accessed Feb 13, 2019.
Chu, Melissa. (2017). “Research Shows Listening to Music Increases Productivity (and Some Types of Music Are Super Effective).” JumpStartyourDreamLife, Accessed December 2018.
References PT 2
Music note, Playfield Enertainment, Published by Imaages press of google
Musical PNG, Decorative Matter, published by Images Pres of Google.
Music Synapsis by InCODE, Published by Images Press of Google
Musical Lextron, by SLS, published by Images of Google
Bleyle, Patricia Edwards, "Music as a mood modulator" (1992). Retrospective Theses and Dissertations. 17311. Accessed Feb 13, 2019.