Chattel Slavery: This form of slavery began in 1619 by European governments and monarchs. These slaves are owned for life and even their own kids are considered property. This is a significant setback for African Americans since they were becoming enslaved and taken as property and not as humans. Slavery has caused thousands of deaths and assaults. The overcome of slavery is very difficult and caused racism which we still see today, almost 400 years later.
Cotton Gin: Developed by Eli Whitney in 1793, the cotton gin made slave work easier by separating cotton and seeds. This invention caused a major increase in slavery due to the increasing need for cotton workers, harming the African American race even more.
The Underground Railroad was a series of safe homes and safe codes that allowed slaved blacks to travel to a non-slaved states. These safe homes were owned by free people all risking their lives to help these people. The free would house the blacks, allowing them to escape free. Some were caught but many were able to escape slavery and live their new lives.
Nat Turner led the most significant slave revolt in the union in 1831. Turner was an enslaved black man that killed his owner, and all whites he could. The slave revolt raised the southern people's fear of a slave uprising and filled them with fear. As well as brought stricter slave laws and made slaves know they weren't in charge. Turner was caught and executed for his crimes
Fugitive Slave Act: Part of the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act gave the return of runaway slaves to owners. These slaves would then be beatened and punished for their attempts at freedon. This is a significant law since it compelled citizens to return runaway slaves, limiting the underground railroad and hurting a slaves chances of freedom.
Dred Scott vs. Sanford: Dred Scott was a slave that lived in a non-slaved state. After Scott filed for freedom and was denied, he brought his case to federal court where it was decided that no negro no matter free or slaved could bring somenone to court. This decision was significant since it reinforced slavery and impacted the rights of blacks.
Emancipation Proclamation: Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln, declaring all slaved people as freed men and women. This is a very significant event since it helped end slavery although not all obeyed this law, it still changed slaves status in the federal government
John Brown was a white abolitionist that led many groups during Bleeding Kansas: a fight for civil rights. He believed in a violet overthrow of the slavery system. He also led Haprgers Ferry, a group wanting to forma slave rebellion. Brown allowed slaves to finally have someone fighting for their rights as well.
Civil War began when slavery was beginning to become a problem for the northern and southern states. The civil war proved that democracy worked.
Harriet Tubman: American abolitionist that declared her life to saving enslaved blacks through the Underground Railroad. Tubman escaped slavery and made approximately thirteen trips and saved around seventy enslaved people. Due to Tubman, many slaved men and families were able to escape to freedom and given some their rights back to them.
Fredrick Douglas was an escaped slave that become a public speaker during the abolitionist movement. Douglas convinced Abraham Lincoln that slaves
Plessy vs. Ferguson was a court case in 1886, formed when Plessy, a black man, refused to sit in a train car only for blacks. This case allowed segregation of blacks and whites
Add short body of text
Reconstruction is a period following the Civil War. This period was created to help the south recover from the Civil War. During this time, many attempts were made to address the inequalities of blacks. This was a significant event since it changed slaves to citizens over time.
DuBois was a spokesperson for African American rights. DuBois founded the NAACP, a civil rights foundation. DuBois also fought many fights during the Civil Rights, allowing blacks to become free.
Marcus Garvey was a leader in the Black Nationalism movement and founded many black community groups. Garvey inspired Garveyism which is a global mass movement. Garvey unified and connected blacks together.
Harlem Renaissance: A time of artistic explosion also known as the "New Negro Movement". This new movement allowed blacks to gain control over their own culture and allowed them a place in their culture as well as allowing them to express theirselves through their art.
World War II began when Germany invaded Poland, making France respond with war. WWII was a major improvement for blacks, finally allowing blacks to join in the war. This was a significant improvement for blacks and gave them an advancement toward becoming citizens.
Tuskegee Airmen was a group of black military pilots in WWII. They were the first African Americans in war as well as
Jackie Robinson was an American baseball player, the first African American to play professional ball. Robinson was a role model for many blacks
Malcolm X was a popular figure during the Civil Rights Movement. Malcolm
to still occur as long as the quality of their separate facilities was equal. Many business didn't obey by this law and still created black facilities with lower budgets. The case is lengthed racial desegretion and supported "seperate but equal".
During this time many slaves were able to escape. Eight months later, the 13th amendment was passed, outlawing slavery.
should be in the union forces which created the ultimate goal of the civil war: end slavery, while also provoking some women's rights.
Congress Of Racial Equality played a vital role in the Civil Rights Movement. CORE was a leading activists organization that provided nonbasic training to those in the bus boycott. CORE was able to test segregation laws and started voter registration for African Americans.
Brown vs. Board of Education was a very significant court case for African Americans. This case ruled that segregation in schools was unlawful no matter the quality of the facilities. This court case allowed blacks and whites to attend school together and was a major step in the right direction for black freedom.
Rosa Parks was an African American that lived during the Bus Boycotts and refused to give her seat in the blacks only part of the bus after a long day of work. Parks was arrested and fined, causing another boycott on the bus system to take place. Parks caused another Civil Rights Movement to occur and led to the desegregation of the buses.
Emmitt Till was an African American young boy that was wrapped with barbed wire and drug behind a car. Emmitt was accused of offending a white woman. This event caused major backlash and setbacks for African Americans, showing how whites felt toward blacks.
Bus Boycotts occured as bus stations began to become segregated. These bus boycotts were apart of the Civil Rights Movements when African Americans refused to ride city buses. These boycotts showed that nonviolent protests could give African Americans advancements toward rights.
Sit In's occured at food counters, swimming pools, all white churches, etc. Many sit in's began to spark up around the country and brought a national attention to these non-violent acts of boycotting against segregation, leading to a less segregated economy.
the most successful group of flyers, helping win Europe. These men show the continued advances for blacks and their growing citizenship.
by playing in a white league. By Robinson playing in the black league, it allowed forms of desegregation to begin to occur.
X urged blacks to defend theirselves against white segregation. He was also a leader of the Nation of Islam, allowing their population to grow dramatically. Malcolm X allowed blacks to stand up for themselves and help the Nation of Islam grow.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee is a major organization during the Civil Rights Movement that formed during the Sit In's. They led nonviolent campaigns against segregation and against racism. They formed many more sit in's, education products, freedom rides, and in years to come the March on Washington.
Freedom Rider's were civil rights activist that rode on public buses through segregated states and protested against black segregation in the transit program. These Freedom Riders wanted all types of segregation while traveling to end no matter the resistance they encounterd along the way. Freedom Riders finally made congress pass a law making all segregation while traveling unconstitutional, allowing blacks another step towards citizenship.
Martin Luther King Jr. was a very famous African American minister and activists against racism during the Civil Rights Act. MLK led many boycotts against segregation and formed a speech making the Civil Rights Movement greater. He gave a speech known as "I have a dream" provoking others to support desegregation and rally against racism. MLK was a major voice for blacks and led many riots and set a tone for his movements ultimately helping segregation end.
March on Washington: Protest held in Washington D.C. during the Civil Rights Movement where almost a quarter of a million people showed up, demanding blacks jobs and freedom. MLK to made his famous "I have a Dream" speech. This march pressured President John F. Kennedy into passing a civil rights bill and was one of the largest movements in history.
Civil Rights Act gave blacks the voice they have been wanting. This act banned all types of segregation and discrimination no matter the sex, race, or religion of a person. This act finally allowed blacks equal access to public places and allowed blacks the same jobs as whites. Although it didn't give voting rights, it was still a huge accomplishment for blacks and a huge step towards citizenship.
Thurgood Marshall was a lawyer that become the first African American to join justice of the Supreme Court. Marshall was the lawyer during the Brown vs. Board of Education case that help end segregation in public schools. Marshall helped gain equality for African Americans. Marshall was also another real life example of the advancements blacks were making in the community.
Shirley Chisholm was a African American author and politician. Chisholm was the first black woman in congress as well as the first black woman to run for president. The Civil Rights Act changed Chisholm life forever. Chisholm gave blacks a real life example as how the Civil Rights Act allowed blacks the same opportunities as whites.
California vs. Bakke took place when Allan Bakke, a black male, applied to medical school twice and was rejected both times. Bakke complained that the University of California was being racist and didn't accept him since he was black. The Supreme Court said using a racial quota was unconstitutional but affirmative action would allow more minorities. This is a significant event, allowing more minorities to be accepted into college and allowed more blacks education.
L.A. Riots were a series of riots and violence that occurred in Los Angeles. These riots began when four police officers were recorded and accused of beating black motorists, Rodney King. Blacks were outraged at the cops and began retaliating and boycotting against the cops. These riots caused many deaths and made blacks relationship with the cops become strained.
Million Men March was a huge gathering of African American men in Washington D.C. These men marched together to show the unity of blacks and their families as well as a way to show their confusion toward the negative racial stereotypes in media and culture. This was a huge event showing the unity of blacks through all they have been through.
Jesse Jackson was an American Civil Rights Activist that ran for Presidential election. Jackson pushed for larger African American job opportunities as well as negotiated the release of hostages. Jackson was also the first viable African American to run for president. Jackson was very important to black youth and persuaded them into working harder and obtaining their education.
Colin Powell is a retired army man that was the first African American and youngest man to become chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff. Powell was also the first African American to run for Secretary of State. Powell is an example of how minorities have gained government positions and grown majorly since slavery.
Barack Obama was the first African American to take presidency of the United States. Obama was a renewed faith of blacks and their American Dream. Obama gave blacks faith that their rights are still growing and racism is still being fought today, although at much quieter events. During Obama's presidency, he focused on the rights of all and making sure everyone was given equal opportunities as well as lowered African American unemployment rates during his presidency. .