Teach effective phonics using explicit, systematic instruction and practice. Students must learn to match a unit of sound (a phoneme) to the letter or letters that make the sound (a grapheme).Separating the written word into its individual sounds and blending the individual sounds of letters to make words is the foundation of reading
Why Use Phonics Resources? Phonics instruction is greatly enhanced when it provides ample opportunity for students to practice the sound/symbol relationships they have been taught. Practice with Reading A-Z resources includes reading word lists and phrases, as well as continuous text in books and stories.
Working on Sound – Symbol Relationships
date text to show as Typewriter animation on publish. After developing alphabetic knowledge, print awareness and phonological awareness, students should begin working on sound-symbol relationships (also known as phonics). A solid understanding of these relationships is necessary before learning to decode (and encode!) words through sound blending. Sound (Phoneme) – Symbol (Letter or Letter Combinations) Relationships Follow these steps when introducing a new sound-symbol relationship:
1. Choose a keyword to use when introducing a new sound-symbol relationship (e.g. sock to learn /s/).
2. Write the spelling (the letter or letter combination) on the whiteboard.
3. State the sound-spelling relationship as you point to the spelling. For example, say “The letter s stands for /s/ as in sock.”
4. Write the keyword on the board and circle the spelling. For example, write the word sock and circle the letter s.
5. Point to the spelling and have student state the sound it stands for. It is important that students participate in all aspects of the lesson.
6. Write the spelling and keyword on an index card and add that card to a growing deck of cards you will use for phonics review.
7. For students needing additional support, use the Teach-Coach-Assess Reteach Model.
Teach-Coach-Assess Model Teach:
Write a lowercase s on the whiteboard with an arrow underneath. Say, “Here’s how we spell the sound we just heard. My turn.” Point to the tail of the arrow. Pause. Then move a finger under the letter and say its sound—/sssss/. Since s is a continuous sound, hold your finger under the letter and say its sound for two seconds and then slash to the right. Say, “I’ll say it again.” Repeat the same sequence (point, pause, move finger and hold under the letter, then move off to the right).
Coach: Say, “Let’s do it together.” Point to the tail. Pause. Say, “Sound.” Then quickly move your finger under the letter and hold for two seconds. Then slash right. Move your finger back to the tail. Pause. Say, “Let’s do it again.” Move your finger and hold, etc. Assess: Say, “Okay, now it’s your turn.” Point to tail. Pause. Say, “Sound.” Then move your finger under letter and hold if continuous. Then slash right. Move your finger back to the tail. Pause. Say, “Again.” Move finger, etc. Repeat whole model if necessary.
Phonics Review: It is important that students actually overlearn the sound-symbol relationships. Therefore, phonics review is a critical part of the learning process. After each sound-spelling is introduced and practiced, the spelling should be written on an index card. Use the compiled index cards to review all sound-spellings regularly.
1. Display one card at a time. Have your student orally state the sound that the spelling stands for. For example, when you show the s card, the student should say /s/.
2. For spellings students struggle with, place the index card at the bottom of the deck, and review it again.
3. Mix and vary the order of the sound-spellings reviewed from lesson to lesson. Why do students confuse certain sounds? Below are eight pairs of consonants that differ only in voicing - everything else is the same. The top sound in each pair is unvoiced. The bottom sound is voiced. Students often confuse sounds in the same pair.
Phoneme Pairs /b/ /p/ /d/ /t/ /g/ /k/ /v/ /f/ /TH/ /th/ /z/ /s/ /zh/ /sh/ /j/ /ch/
Sounds of Speech
The following charts can guide you in working with students to learn the correct sounds associated with specific letters and letter combinations (e.g. “ch”). Phonics is a method for teaching reading and writing of the English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness—the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes—in order to teach the correspondence between these sounds and the spelling patterns (graphemes) that represent them.
The goal of phonics is to enable beginning readers to decode new written words by sounding them out, or in phonics terms, blending the sound-spelling patterns. Since it focuses on the spoken and written units within words, phonics is a sub lexical approach and, as a result, is often contrasted with whole language, a word-level-up philosophy for teaching reading.
t, bt, ed
tap, doubt, flipped
c, k, ch
can’t, kick, crook, lock
Phonics has been widely used in primary education and in teaching literacy throughout the English-speaking world.
Basic rules of phonics