Since the global emphasis on 21st century skills, it has been argued that current pedagogy (lecture) needs to be transformed to enable new forms of learning that are needed to tackle complex global challenges and the acquisition of 21st century skills. Experts are recognizing that current pedagogy is ineffective for teaching 21st century competencies. Subsequently, Pedagogy 2.0 emphasizes participation, collaborative learning, personalized learning, teaching for transfer, project- based learning and real-world contexts as the key to acquire the needed skills of the 21st century learner (Scott, 20150.
Interest-driven instruction is a part of Pedagogy 2.0 that supports designing instruction by differentiating based on student's hobbies/interests.
The How-Recommendation to tackle complex work Increased engagement Take
creates higher learner outcomes
develops intrinsic motivation
makes learning relevant
develops 21st century skills
makes deeper connections
develops own understanding
Takes ownership of learning
creates confidence to tackle complex tasks
creates life-long learners
Paul, McCarthy, & Rheingold
Knowledge is actively constructed based on pre-existing cognitive structures.
Cognitive development stems from independent exploration in which children construct knowledge of their own.
Discovery learning is emphasized.
Motivation is intrinsic; learners set their own goals.
Piaget’s concluded that, “Discovery learning and supporting the developing interests of the child are two primary instructional techniques,” (Huitt & Hummel, 2003, para. 8).
Knowledge stems from social interaction learning within the Zone of Proximal Development.
Emphasis is placed on culture, and assumes cognitive development varies from culture to culture.
Motivation is intrinsic (learning goals & motivation) and extrinsic ( rewards provided by the community).
Vygotsky’s notes that, “Young children are curious and actively involved in their own learning and the discovery and development of new understandings/schema,” (McLeod, 2018, para. 6).
Also, Vygotsky believed that Social interaction is important to learning, and he suggest that emphasis be placed on collaborative learning especially discussion-based inquiry (Neff, n.d., para. 2).
Synapes, connections between cells., thicken with repeated use.Memory exists as a network of linked cells.
The brain embeds images, etc. in networks of perceptions to help make connections when necessary.
Power of Forgetting
Forgetting enables and deepens learning
consistency a myth
each alteration of the routine enriches the skill
retain much longer
can double the amount remembered
alters what we remember
changes how we organize memories.
The memory has new & different connections.
The network holding the cells has been altered.
"Testing is studying..." (Carey, 2014, p. 103).
shifts perception to view problem in a different way.
being "stuck" & walking away.
not passive; subconscious continues to work on the problem.
Longer incubation periods are better than shorter ones
highly personal experience
The Zeigarnik effect
extends the memory
goal-cultivate interest that is lasting & fulfilling over a life time.
varied practice more effective than focused practice.
results in greater learning over time.
reveals distinctions & achieve a better understanding
understand concepts more clearly along side of familiar ones - making connection
Tapping the Subconscious
the brain "perceives to learn"
not passive absorption, but an active process
It is self correcting
happen all the time & can be exploited to speed up acquisition of skills
cultivate interests that provide us with lasting stimulation and fulfillment
interests that lead to life-long learning. (Paul, 2013)
Making learning relevant is key when differentiating for student interests.
Student profiles and interest inventories allows learners to process understanding based on their own experiences.
Learners are willing to tackle complex work if the topic interests them and if they have a voice on how to accomplish the work. (McCarthy, 2014))
Research indicates that learners who are interested in what they are learning achieve higher learning outcomes.
At Pacific School of Innovation and Inquiry there is a clear difference where traditional schools cover subjects, PSII uncovers them.
“learning is based in valued human attributes, then competencies, then personal and universal learning goals.”
What makes interest-based instruction possible?
Collect data on student interests, perception of content, and how they process understanding
Establish and coach clear academic criteria
Teach/coach collaboration and develop collaborative partnership
Eliminate assessment fog
Establish culture of constructive feedback
When academic criteria is clearly defined, the possibilities are endless as to what students can come up with to demonstrate their understanding. Allowing such voice leads to increased engagement on the work.(McCarthy, 2013)
I strongly recommend interest-driven instruction. It's time for teaching pedagogy to catch up with the 21st century. Students are active learners and view themselves as participants in learning, taking ownership of their personal learning paths. Twenty-first century instruction is based on three pedagogical principles – personalization (interest-driven instruction), participation and productivity (Scott, 2015).
"Pedagogy 2.0 draws several elements from emerging learning innovations and the rapidly growing research literature on learning, technology and open education. These include:
→ A mix of acquisition and practice of project-based learning and other immersive pedagogies;
→ Individual education plans for all;
→ The realization that learners, not only teachers, are the workers in the education system; → The unbundling of teaching, learning and the assessment of competence; and
→ The inclusion of essential twenty-first century skills such as learning how to solve difficult problems and learning how to collaborate. " (Scott, 2015).
Results show improvement in academic achievement, as well as increases in the quality, frequency and flexibility of learning relationships, which lead to deeper student motivation and engagement, and the creation of school communities where students, teachers and families collaborate to optimize education and learning (Scott, 2015).
Models of Interest-driven instruction at its best:
High Tech High
Pacific School of Innovation and Inquiry
Virginia Beach City Public Schools
McCarthy (2014) says it best,“ If this approach is good for professionals, why not use it for our learners?” (para. 7).
Boerre, C. (2006). Jean Piaget: 1896-1980. Retrieved August 24, 2018 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/piaget.html
Carey, B. (2014). How we learn: The surprising truth about when, where, and why it happens. New York, NY: Random House. ISBN: 978-0-8129-9389-9
High Tech High (2018). About us. Retrieved September 13, 2018 from https://www.hightechhigh.org/about-us/
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. Retrieved from http://edpsycinteractive.org/piagets-theory-of-cognitive-development/
McCarthy, J. (2017, March 13). Constructivist learning in Common Core/state standards environments. Retrieved on September 14, 2018 from http://openingpaths.org/blog/2014/03/constructivist-learning/
McCarthy, J. (2014). Learner interest matters: Strategies for empowering student choice. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/differentiated-instruction-learner-interestmatters-john-mccarthy
McLeod, S. (2018, Aug 05). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved August 24, 2018 from https://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html
Neff, L S. (n.d.). Lev Vygotsky and social learning theories. Retrieved from http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/lsn/educator/edtech/learningtheorieswebsite/vygotsky.htm
Pacific School of Innovation and Inquiry. (2018). Retrieved on September 13, 2018 from https://learningstorm.org Personalized Learning. (2017, September 8). Retrieved on September 13, 2018 from http://vbplearn.weebly.com
Paul, A. M. (2013, November 4). How the power of interest drives learning. Retrieved from http://blogs.kqed.org/mindshift/2013/11/how-the-power-of-interest-drives-learning/
Rheingold, H. (2014, June 23). Learner interest-driven curriculum. Retrieved from http://dmlcentral.net/blog/howard-rheingold/learner-interest-driven-curriculum
Scott, C. (2015, December 15). The future of learning 3: What kind of pedagogies for the 21st century? UNESCO Education Research and Foresight. Retrieved on September 13, 2018 from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002431/243126E.pdf
VBCPS. (n.d.). Compass to 2020: Charting the course. Retrieved July 20, 2018 from http://www2.vbschools.com/compass/2020/landing