Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in an extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21. This extra genetic material causes the developmental changes and physical features of Down syndrome.
Flattened face, Small head, Short neck, Protruding tongue, Upward slanting eye lids, Unusually shaped or small ears, Poor muscle tone, Broad short hands, with a single crease in the palm, Relatively short fingers and small hands and feet, Excessive flexibility, Tiny white spots on the colored part
Most children with Down syndrome have mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Language is delayed, and both short and long-term memory is affected
Is it inherited?
Most of the time, Down syndrome isn't inherited. It's caused by a mistake in cell division during early development of the fetus.
Speech therapy to improve the ability to communicate. Physical therapy to help strengthen muscles and improve motor skills. Occupational therapy to help refine motor skills and make daily tasks easier. Behavioral therapy to help manage the emotional challenges that may accompany Down syndrome.
A woman's chances of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome increase with age because older eggs have a greater risk of improper chromosome division.
Parents who have one child with Down syndrome and parents who have a translocation themselves are at an increased risk of having another child with Down syndrome.