Stem Cell Industry
What Are Stem Cells
Undifferentiated cells that can be become specialized cells. Stem cells have become popular in regenerative medicine for their ability to repair diseased & damaged tissue in the human body
Basic cells that have yet to be developed & serve no specific function. The first few cells in an embryo are considered undifferentiated
Cells that serve a specific function i.e. nerve cells, reproductive cells, blood cells, muscle cells, etc.
2 Types of Stem Cells
These stem cells are the "master builder" stem cells. All the different cell types in our body come from this cell.
Can be turned into any type of specialized cell - skin cells, muscle cells, nerve cells, etc.
Types of Pluripotent Stem Cells
iPSC (induced pluripotent stem cells)
Stem Cells that can only become specialized cells specific to its tissue.
Turned into cells specific to its tissue. Liver stem cells can regenerate the liver & muscle stem cells can regenerate muscle fiber, but muscle cells cannot regenerate the liver nor liver stem cells regenerate muscle fiber
Types of Multipotent Stem Cells
Adult Stem Cells
Originally, embryonic stem cells where the only type of pluripotent cell (the more desirable of the two types). In 2006, Shinya Yamanaka created the first iPSC from adult stem cells in a lab. This was a major milestone because of the ability to turn adult stem cells from mulitpotent to pluripotent w/o the need for embryos.
Stem Cell History
Martin Evans from Cambridge University discovers embryonic stem cells in mice
Ian Wilmut & a team from Roslin Institute create the 1st artificially cloned animal: Dolly the sheep
Jamie Thompson from the University of Wisconsin identifies human embryonic stem cells & grows them in a lab
National Bioethics Advisory Commission supports research of human embryonic stem cells
President Bush limits research funding for embryonic stem cells because it envolves the destruction of embryos
Shinyo Yamanaka of Kyoto University creates iPSC's
President Obama lifts the funding restrictions put in place by President Bush
Human embryonic stem cells are used to treat a leading cause of blindness. 2 patients vision is improved because of the treatment
Scientists created human embryonic stem cells from skin cells by turning skin cells back into their embryonic state
Scientists have created an early embryo from mouse cells
1 in 6
children diagnosed with a disease treatable with stem cells
chances needing a stem cell transplant by 70 yrs old
1 in 217
annual stem cell transplants worldwide
people treated with stem cells globally
ongoing or completed clinical trials using stem cells
conditions treated with stem cells
sickle cell anemia
spinal cord injury
optic nerve disease
global stem cell market