Genetics and Heredity
Chromosomes contain the recipe for making something that is living. They are found in almost every cell’s nucleus and are made from strands of DNA . Strans of DNA called genes are the ingredients. Each gene adds a specific protein to the recipe. Proteins build, regulate and maintain your body. For an example, they build bones, make muscles to move, control digestion, and keep your heart from stopping.
What are Chromosomes?
Genes and chromosomes
The basic principles of genetics were deduced by Gregor Mendel in 1865, on the basis of the results of breeding experiments with peas. Mendel studied the inheritance of a number of traits, such as eye color, and was able to deduce general rules for their transmission. In all cases, he could correctly interpret the observed patterns of inheritance by assuming that each trait is determined by a pair of inherited factors, which are now called genes. One gene copy called an allele specifying each trait is inherited from each parent.
One of two or more alternative forms of a gene that form by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
Two research approaches were historically important in helping investigators understand the biological basis of heredity. The first of these approaches, transmission genetics, involved crossing organisms and studying the offspring straits to develop hypotheses about the mechanisms of inheritance. This work demonstrated that in some organisms at least, heredity seems to follow a few definite and rather simple rules.
The control of different behaviors is a hard concept to grasp but it is the process that is influenced by both genetics and environmental factors. A new study throws light on interesting connections between canine aggression and genes that are involved in neurotransmission in the brain.
Behavioral issues in dogs, particularly aggression towards people, are often the reason why otherwise healthy dogs are put down. Aggression and anxiety related behavior also has a negative effect on animal welfare because stress effects both the mental and physical health of dogs.
Diverse breeds of dog with different forms of behavior act as genetic isolates and are used in studies of complex characteristics such as behavior. Similarities in diseases in dogs and humans also provide good opportunities for comparative studies in the field of medical genetics and dogs can therefore be valuable genetic models for various human disorders.
Agression in Dogs
The central nervous system and its neurotransmitters and intricate networks of receptors play an importaint role in this study of behavioral genetics. Serotonin and dopamine are neurotransmitters in the brain and have an important function in the control of behavior. Many of the medicines that are used for the treatment of psychological disorders have a large effect on these neurotransmitters.The neurotransmitter systems have tons different receptors and enzymes that regulate the production and breakdown of psychoactive substances. All stages of these reactions are controlled by genes and can be potential sources of behavioural changes.
The doctoral study has revealed a variation in genes related to serotonin and dopamine in dogs. Våge used these variations as markers in the study and discovered connections between individual variants of genes and aggressive behaviour in dogs
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