-Lincoln assassinated;Andrew Johnson becomes president
Desc: President Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes booth on April 14th, 1865 at the Ford theater Andrew would be sworn in on April 15 ,1865
Special Field Order 15: General William T.Sherman after conversing with some prominent black leaders it would issue that sea islands(40 acres and a mule) would be set aside for settlement of black families.
Freedmen’s Bureau established(1865): The bureau was enacted to establish schools,provide aid to those in need, and settle disputes between whites and blacks(1865-1870)
Presidential Reconstruction: After Lee's surrender, Johnson offered a pardon to all the white southerns who took allegiance to the confederacy(excluding wealthy land owners and confederate leaders), he also enacted governing by whites alone in the south.His decisions brought upon disapproval from the northern republicans
Civil Rights Bill: described as "one of the most important bills ever presented to the House for its action.” This bill would give concrete meaning to the thirteenth amendment, it would extend the true meaning of freedom to all races with discrimination(although it never mentioned the ability to vote for black Americans. Johnson would go on to veto this bill.
Ku Klux Klan established: During the period of the "reign of terror" a new organization would erupt in which was Led by planters, merchants,and Democratic politicians. This group would commit some of the most brutal criminal acts in history
Radical Reconstruction(1867- 1877): Lincoln's successor, Andrew Johnson was at the head of this reconstruction , these radical republicans believed blacks were entitled to equal civil and political rights and believed the confederates were punishable for their actions , Johnson denied any feat the radical republicans attempted , this led to the decision of his impeachment
Impeachment of President Johnson: That spring of 1868 Johnson was put on trial by the senate for high crimes and misdemeanors, most of the republican party considered him and a failure and voted in favor of his impeachment. A few days after the vote, Republicans nominated Ulysses S. Grant, the Union’s most prominent military hero,as their candidate for president.
Fourteenth Amendment ratified: Congress,in June, brought up the discussion of the ratification of the fourteenth amendment,The amendment prohibited the states from abridging the “privileges and immunities” of citizens or denying them the “equal protection of the law, although the still did not state that black people would have the right to vote. Congress would prove to be on "thin ice"if it denied any citizen the right to vote, but still black people were at a disadvantage of representation in congress.
Women’s feminist organizationsplits into two groupsInauguration of Ulysses S.Grant
ijj Revels, first blackSenator
National economic depression begins: Only the spiraling topic of Reconstruction the country divulged into a severe economic depression, the south suffered the hardest blow, eventually it allowed for the democrats to be in control.
Slaughterhouse Cases: Butchers in Louisiana went to court claiming their right to equality on the grounds of the fourteenth amendment, they were denied by justices ruling that the amendment had not altered traditional federalism.Most of the rights of citizens, it declared, remained under state control.
Civil Rights Act of 1875: This outlawed racial discrimination in places of public accommodation like hotels and theaters.
Hiram Revels, first black Senator: African-Americans were represented at every level of government.Fourteen were elected to the national House of Representatives. of which one was Hiram revels a man born free of slavery, who was serve as chaplain in the union army. He would be one of the first black senators participating in the reconstruction.
Fifteenth Amendment ratified: After Grant's win in 1868 Congress resulted to the fifteenth amendment which prohibited the federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to vote because of race, it was officially ratified in 1870
Women’s feminist organization splits into two groups: The women's suffrage movement split due to suffragette Lucy stone's disagreement with Stanton and Anthony's disapproval of the fourteenth amendment, she believed they should still support black men's right to vote while still fighting for women's rights.
Inauguration of Ulysses S.Grant: After Johnson's pending impeachment the election of 1868 was held Grant would be nominated for the republican party, he would go on to win the election and be inaugurated on March 4. 1869.
Liberal Republicans established: a group of disgruntled republicans alienated by the administration of grant decided to from their own party, these people believed the power of the government's power needed to be curtailed
'I expect to plead not for the slave only, but for suffering humanity everywhere. Especially do I mean to labor for the elevation of my sex".- Lucy stone.
United States v. Cruikshank: This case arose from the 1873 Colfax massacre that occurred due to a political debate, three men violated the 1870 enforcement act the case reached the supreme court and ruled that the rights they were alleged to have violated were not enforceable in this case.he First and Second Amendment rights to assembly and the bearing of arms were, according to the Court’s ruling, intended only to restrict the actions of the federal government and did not apply to the states or private citizens, and the Fourteenth Amendment rights to due process and equal protection applied only to state action and again, not to the actions of individuals.
Bargain of 1877: This bargain came about after the election of Rutherford B Hayes, the republican would take control of after majority vote of southern electoral commission members. Hayes agreed to recognize democratic control of the south in return democrats wouldn't question Hayes right to office and to respect the civil and political rights of blacks.
Inauguration of Rutherford B. Hayes: The inauguration of Hayes took place on Sunday, March 4,1877 in a private ceremony in the Red room of the white house. He only served one term and quietly left office in 1881, after facing disapproval from american citizens due to certain choices.
"With respect to the two distinct races whose peculiar relations to each other have brought upon us the deplorable complications and perplexities which exist in those States, it must be a government which guards the interests of both races carefully and equally-Rutherford B. Hayes Inauguration address "